Table of contents


Vision

Mission

Values

Democracy

Maturity

Environmental Sustainability

Self-Reliance

Equal Opportunity

Participation

Culture

Religion

Technology

1: Agriculture & Food Security

1.1: Agricultural Productivity

1.1.a: Value Addition

1.1.b: Smallholders

1.1.c: Livestock

1.2: Food Security

1.3: Agro-Processing

1.3.1: Core Crops

1.3.1.a: Tea

1.3.1.b: Tobacco

1.3.1.c: Sugar

1.3.1.d: Cotton

1.3.1.e: Wheat

2: Irrigation & Water Development

2.1: Access

3: Transport Infrastructure Development

3.1: Road Transport

3.1.1: Trucking

3.2: Water Transport

3.2.1: Inland Shipping Network

4: Energy Generation & Supply

4.1: Energy Supply

5: Integrated Rural Development

5.1: Rural Growth Centers

6: Nutrition Disorders, HIV & AIDS

6.1: HIV & AIDS

6.1.1: Behaviour

6.2: Nutrition

6.2.1: Malnutrition & Disease

6.3: Nutrition, HIV & AIDS

6.3.1: Dietary Practices

7: Economic Growth

7.1: Growth Sectors

7.1.1: Tourism

7.1.1.1: Products & Services

7.1.1.2: Capacity

7.1.1.3: Reach

7.1.1.4: Investment, Infrastructure & Visitor Management

7.1.2: Mining

7.1.2.1: Geological Surveys

7.1.2.2: Environmental & Safety Standards

7.1.2.3: Small Scale Miners

7.1.2.4: Investment

7.1.2.5: Information & Geographical Mapping

7.1.3: Manufacturing

7.1.3.1: Quality & Productivity

7.1.3.2: Skills

7.1.3.3: Malawi Bureau of Standards

7.1.3.4: Investment Incentives

7.1.3.5: Cost of Doing Business

7.2: Private Sector Development

7.2.1: Infrastructure

7.2.2: Vocational Training

7.2.3: Productivity & Quality

7.3: Export Led Growth

7.3.1: External Markets

7.3.2: Lead Times

7.3.3: Product Marketability

7.3.4: Trade Network & Information

7.3.5: Knowledge

7.4: Conservation

7.4.1: Fisheries

7.4.1.1: Enforcement

7.4.1.2: Modern Techniques

7.4.1.3: Community Training

7.4.1.4: Small-Scale Fish Farming & Deep-Water Fishing

7.4.2: Forestry

7.4.2.1: Productivity & Value

7.4.2.2: Reforestation

7.4.2.3: Enforcement

7.4.2.4: Afforestation & Environmental Rehabilitation

7.4.2.5: Incentives

7.4.3: Environmental Protection

7.4.3.1: Enforcement

7.4.3.2: Cooperation

7.4.3.3: Awareness

7.4.3.4: School Curricula

7.4.3.5: Environmental Management Information System

7.4.4: Wildlife

7.4.4.1: Enforcement

7.4.4.2: Infrastructure

7.4.4.3: Tsetse Flies

7.4.4.4: Collaborative Management

7.4.4.5: Problem Animal Control

7.4.4.6: Eco-Tourism

7.4.4.7: Wildlife Research & Monitoring

7.5: Economic Empowerment

7.5.1: Roads

7.5.2: Cooperatives

7.5.3: Micro-Finance

7.5.4: Training

7.5.5: Women

7.6: Land & Housing

7.6.1: Markets & Transaction Costs

7.6.2: Privatisation

7.6.3: Awareness & Participation

7.6.4: Land Use Practices

7.6.5: Antidiscrimination

7.6.6: Allocation

7.6.7: Tax

8: SOCIAL PROTECTION AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

8.1: Protecting the Vulnerable

8.1.1: Support

8.1.2: Planning & Knowledge

8.1.3: Farmers & Rural Communities

8.1.4: Savings Culture

8.1.5: Capital

8.2: Disaster Risk Management

8.2.1: Institutions

8.2.2: Risk Management

8.2.3: Mitigation

8.2.4: Sustainable Development

8.2.5: Coordination

8.2.6: Early Warning

8.2.7: Emergency Relief

9: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

9.1: Health

9.1.1: Worker Retention

9.1.2: Working Environment

9.1.3: Drug Supply

9.1.4: Facilities

9.1.5: Equipment

9.1.6: Financial Management, Monitoring & Supervision

9.1.7: Services

9.2: Population

9.2.1: Fertility

9.2.2: Morbidity & Mortality

9.2.3: Reproductive Health

9.2.4: HIV & AIDS

9.2.5: Awareness

9.2.6: Demographic & Socio-Economic Data

9.3: Education

9.3.1: School Buildings & Infrastructure

9.3.2: Teacher Training

9.3.3: Teaching-Learning Environment

9.3.4: Curricula

9.3.5: Student Selection

9.3.6: Girls & Special Needs Students

9.3.7: Managerial Skills

9.4: Gender

9.4.1: Policy Implementation

9.4.2: Affirmative Action

9.4.3: Advocacy

9.4.4: Cultural/Traditional Factors

10: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

10.1: Air & Rail Transportation

10.1.1: Air Transport

10.1.1.1: Air Transport Industry

10.1.1.2: Aviation Infrastructure

10.1.2: Rail Transport

10.1.2.1: Information, Communication & Technologies

10.1.2.1.1: Universal Access

10.1.2.1.1.1: Investment Environnment

10.1.2.1.1.2: Regulatory Capacity

10.1.2.1.1.3: Regulations

10.1.2.1.2: Information Technology (IT)

10.1.2.1.2.1: Infrastructure

10.1.2.1.2.2: Legislation

10.1.2.1.2.3: System of Communication

10.1.2.1.2.4: Education & Training

10.1.2.1.2.5: Access

10.1.2.1.3: Broadcasting

10.1.2.1.3.1: Transmitting Stations

10.1.2.1.3.2: Distribution & Coverage

10.1.2.1.3.3: Local Capacity

10.1.2.1.3.4: Quality

10.1.2.1.3.5: Private Broadcasting Stations

10.1.2.1.3.6: Community Broadcasting

10.1.3: Research, Science & Technology Development

10.1.3.1: National Science and Technology Commission

10.1.3.2: Capacity

10.1.3.3: Public-Private Partnerships

10.1.3.4: Commercialization

10.1.3.5: Awards

10.1.3.6: Funding

10.1.3.7: Syllabi

11: IMPROVED GOVERNANCE

11.1: Macroeconomic Growth

11.1.1: Public Finance Management

11.1.2: Budget Monitoring & Evaluation

11.1.3: Donor Financing

11.1.4: Private Sector Participation

11.1.5: Donor-Aid Coordination

11.2: Public Policy Formulation, Fiscal Management, Public Sector Management & Corruption

11.2.1: Public Policy Formulation

11.2.1.1: Community Information Centres

11.2.1.2: Infrastructure

11.2.1.3: Access to Information Legislation

11.2.1.4: Policy Formulation & Evaluation

11.2.1.5: Parliament

11.2.2: Fiscal Management

11.2.2.1: Priorities

11.2.2.2: Budgetary Expenditures

11.2.2.3: Legal Adherence

11.2.2.4: Financial & Management Information System

11.2.2.5: Budget/Accounting Linkage

11.2.3: Corruption

11.2.3.1: Training

11.2.3.2: Accountability

11.2.3.3: Political Interference

11.2.3.4: Procurement

11.2.3.5: Devolution

11.2.4: Public Sector Management

11.2.4.1: Training

11.2.4.2: Appointments & Promotions

11.2.4.3: Wage Policy Reform

11.2.4.4: Civil Service

11.2.4.5: Non-Salary Incentives

11.3: Decentralization

11.3.1: Devolution

11.3.2: Roles

11.3.3: M&E System

11.3.4: Training

11.4: Justice & Rule of Law

11.4.1: Local Capacities

11.4.2: Court Centres

11.4.3: Civil Disputes

11.4.4: Legal Alignment

11.4.5: Informal Legal System

11.5: Security

11.5.1: Police

11.5.2: Prosecution & Punishment

11.5.3: Crime Detection, Investigation & Prevention

11.5.4: Risk Management

11.5.5: Community Integration & Participation

11.6: Corporate Governance

11.6.1: Best Practices

11.6.2: Institute of Directors

11.6.3: Private Sector

11.7: Human Rights

11.7.1: Awareness

11.7.2: Prosecution

11.7.3: Legislation & Administrative Framework

11.7.4: Workplace Regulations

11.7.5: Monitoring & Evaluation

11.7.6: School Curricula

11.8: Implementation



StrategicPlan

Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS)

The Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) is the overarching strategy for Malawi for the next five years, from 2006/07 to 2010/2011 fiscal years. The purpose of the MGDS is to serve as a single reference document for policy makers in Government; the Private Sector; Civil Society Organizations; Donors and Cooperating Partners and the general public on socio-economic growth and development priorities for Malawi.

The overriding philosophy of the MGDS is poverty reduction through sustainable economic growth and infrastructure development. The MGDS identifies six key priority areas which define the direction the country intends to take in the next five years to achieve economic growth and wealth creation which are critical for immediate improvement in the economic well-being of Malawians. These are agriculture and food security; irrigation and water development; transport infrastructure development; energy generation and supply; integrated rural development; prevention and management of nutrition disorders, HIV and AIDS.

Source:
http://www.malawi.gov.mw/Publications/MGDS November 2006 - MEPD.pdf

Start: End: Publication Date: 2013-03-11

Submitter:

First name: Owen

Last name: Ambur

Email Address: Owen.Ambur@verizon.net

Organization:

Name: Republic of Malawi

Acronym: ROM

Stakeholder(s):

Dr. Bingu Wa Mutharika: State President of the Republic of Malawi

Government of Malawi: The main responsibility of Government shall be to provide public goods and services as well as regulatory framework. These include roads, railways, airports, education, health services, and social services among others. It shall also provide the necessary environment and incentives to promote private sector activities. Government shall safeguard the interests of all Malawians by correcting market failures through policy, legal and regulatory framework reviews.

Parliament of Malawi: The role of Parliament shall be to enhance Parliamentary oversight, transparency and accountability in the implementation of the MGDS. This will be done through MPs involvement in the scrutinization, consideration and approval of Government budgets, reviewing and making laws. It shall ensure that the budget is being used to provide resources for the prioritised activities in the MGDS. In this regard, the interests and priorities of Malawians shall be protected.

Private Sector in Malawi: The main role of the private sector is to invest in both economic and social sectors to generate economic growth and create wealth. In this context, the private sector shall be expected to take up opportunities outlined in the MGDS. The scope of the private sector will be widened to involve them in the provision of other public goods and services through public-private sector partnerships.

Civil Society of Malawi: The role of the Civil Society in the implementation of the MGDS is two fold; first, to implement some specific activities particularly within the context of the Governance theme, and second, to provide oversight and accountability functions in order to safeguard the interests of Malawians.

Donors to Malawi: The main role of donors and cooperating partners shall be to assist across the board with financial and technical resources to implement the activities in the MGDS. In doing so, they will be expected to support and align their activities in line with the priorities of the MGDS.

Malawi Co-operating Partners

General Public of Malawi

Vision

.. by the year 2020 Malawi, as a God fearing nation, will be secure, democratically mature, environmentally sustainable, self-reliant with equal opportunities for and active participation by all, having social services, vibrant cultural and religious values and a technologically driven middle-income economy.

Mission

To reduce poverty through sustained economic growth and infrastructure development.

Values

Democracy

Maturity

Environmental Sustainability

Self-Reliance

Equal Opportunity

Participation

Culture

Religion

Technology


Goal 1: Agriculture & Food Security

Increase agriculture’s contribution to economic growth.

Stakeholder(s):

Farmers in Malawi

Agroprocessors in Malawi

Objective(s):

1.1: Agricultural Productivity

1.1.a: Value Addition

1.1.b: Smallholders

1.1.c: Livestock

1.2: Food Security

1.3: Agro-Processing

1.3.1: Core Crops

1.3.1.a: Tea

1.3.1.b: Tobacco

1.3.1.c: Sugar

1.3.1.d: Cotton

1.3.1.e: Wheat


Other Information:

Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy as it employs about 80 per cent of the workforce, and contributes over 80 per cent of foreign exchange earnings. Above all it also contributes significantly to national and household food security. However, agriculture in Malawi is characterized by low and stagnant yields, over dependence on rain-fed farming which increases vulnerability to weather related shocks, low level of irrigation development, and low uptake of improved farm inputs among others. Low profitability of smallholder agriculture has also been influenced by weak links to markets, high transport costs, few farmer organizations, poor quality control and lack of information on markets and prices. In addition, due to high risks in agricultural production and poor access to credit, investment and re-investment have been poor. Consequently, Malawi continues to suffer from chronic food insecurity at both household and national levels with many of the problems being structural and economic in nature. The main contributing factors include over-dependence on rain-fed agriculture, low productivity, low incomes, poor road infrastructure, poor functioning markets, weak private sector participation, poor early warning system and poor mechanization. In addition, past food security policies have been ineffective, resulting in stagnating aggregate food production and productivity, and poor functioning markets. The overall goal is, therefore, to increase agriculture’s contribution to economic growth, by not only increasing production for food security, but also for agroprocessing and manufacturing for both domestic and export markets. Emphasis will be on enhancing agricultural productivity, promoting food security and agroprocessing of key crops. Key Strategies -- Main strategies include: * Strengthening linkages of farmers to markets by connecting rural communities, targeting rural roads and developing farmer organizations and market information, * Encouraging the expansion and intensification of staple food production by smallholders, * Providing effective extension services with more decentralized service delivery for agribusiness skills, * Increasing the use of pest resistant varieties and promotion of pest management, * Promoting soil and water conservation and farming techniques; * Promoting irrigation farming; * Ensuring that existing land rights are recognized, clarified and secured by appropriate legislation, and * Encouraging and expansion of horticultural crop production for agro-processing

Objective 1.1: Agricultural Productivity

Increase agriculture productivity.

Objective 1.1.a: Value Addition

Increased value added to agricultural products by rural farmers and orient smallholder sub-sector to greater commercialisation and international competitiveness.

Objective 1.1.b: Smallholders

Increased smallholder agricultural productivity.

Objective 1.1.c: Livestock

Increased livestock production.

Objective 1.2: Food Security

Make Malawi a hunger-free nation.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcome: The medium term expected outcome is that food will be available for all Malawians in sufficient quantities and qualities, at affordable prices. Key Strategies -- Main strategies include: * Improving agricultural productivity; * Implementing policies to improve the functioning of maize and other food crop markets; * Implementing policies that do not distort the market and which reduce dependency on food aid; * Putting in place an effective early warning system;. * Promoting income generating activities; * Improving the coordination and management of food aid and imports; and * Improving the ability to import and distribute food through better domestic regional connectivity, and * Construction of steel bin silos in strategic areas to improve medium to long term food storage capacity.

Objective 1.3: Agro-Processing

Increase the contribution of agro-processing to economic growth, move up the value chain in key crops, and increase exportation of agro-processed products.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcome -- The expected medium term outcome is substantial increase in contribution of agroprocessing to GDP. The food and agro-processing sub-sectors account for more than 30 percent of manufacturing output with value addition ranging between 30-35 percent. MEGS identified agro-processing as a high growth potential sector. Under the sector, processing largely concentrated on tobacco, tea, sugar, cotton and wheat. However, agro-processing of fruits and vegetables, rice, cassava, macademia, cashew nuts, irish potatoes and spices has potential for growth, but each of these are currently relatively small. To achieve this, constraints facing the sector need to be addressed. These include poor and inadequate infrastructure such as roads and electricity. In addition, unfavourable macroeconomic environment, low level of vocational skills, weak marketing and distribution systems for raw crops, low productivity of smallholders, and high import duties on equipment. Key Strategies -- Main strategies include; * Improving infrastructure for agro-processing, * Reviewing the policy and regulatory frameworks impacting on agroprocessing * Building capacity for small scale enterprises, and * Improving productivity of smallholder farmers.

Objective 1.3.1: Core Crops

Continue efforts to maximise the economic contributions of core crops.

Other Information:

The agriculture sector has in the past been dominated by tobacco, tea and sugar as the major foreign exchange earners. In the medium term these crops are expected to continue to dominate amidst the challenges they are currently facing. The importance of these crops for this country cannot be overemphasized hence efforts will continue going towards these crops in order to maximise their economic contributions to the agriculture sector in particular and the economy in general. The overall goal is to achieve sustainable agricultural production and increased incomes for farmers.

Objective 1.3.1.a: Tea

Increase production of tea.

Other Information:

The medium term expected outcome is increased production of tea, especially clonal tea varieties that are competitive on the world market. Adoption of clonal tea is a result of the limited prospects for the low yielding varieties currently grown, Though tea ranks next to tobacco as a major foreign exchange earner, its production faces a number of constraints including low private sector investment in irrigation, lack of appropriate factory shells, poor marketing system and high operational costs. Key Strategies -- The tea industry will focus on increasing tea estate and smallholder profitability and reinvestment, as well as value addition. The current strategies are centred on private sector taking a leading role, while Government focuses on the broader constraints, such as availability of reliable and cheap sources of power (electricity) and the creation of a favourable macroeconomic environment. The sub-sector and Government will work together to develop focused investment incentives and other measures to strengthen the industry. Other strategies include; * Promoting clonal tea variety to increase productivity, * Refurbishing factories, * Promoting market oriented processing of tea and * Improving the marketing system.

Objective 1.3.1.b: Tobacco

Add value to tobacco and maintain market leader position in burley tobacco.

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcome -- The medium term expected outcome is value addition to tobacco and maintenance of market leader position in burley tobacco. Tobacco is the main export crop accounting for over 70.0 per cent of total export earnings. However, over the past several years, there has been a decline in average yields and profitability of Malawi´s tobacco. The sub-sector faces a number of constraints which include widespread use of low quality seed, increased incidences of disease and pests due to inadequate crop rotation, and significant post-harvest losses due to inadequate curing barn infrastructure. The decline in profitability is also due to inefficiencies in the current marketing system. The industry also faces regional competition. Key Strategies -- The main strategy is to increase production of flue cured, NDF tobaccos by rationalization of fees, creating a more efficient and fair system between farmers and auction houses, strengthening contract farming, and exploring additional markets for tobacco, including tobacco products. Other strategies include; * Establishing cooperatives, * Promoting tobacco products processing, * Providing farmers with inputs, and * Enhancing extension services.

Objective 1.3.1.c: Sugar

Increase production of sugar by 23 percent.

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcomes -- The medium term expected outcome is increased production of sugar by 23 percent. For Malawi to compete successfully as an international player in the sugar market, it needs to ensure that its sugar industry is profitable and is able to reinvest in growing and processing. However, the sub-sector is faced with a number of constraints which include access to the major European markets, and poor transport linkages to ports Key Strategies -- * Negotiating Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with European Union to ensure fair trading of sugar, * Promoting out-grower schemes for smallholders, and * Improving inter modal transport for effective linkages to ports.

Objective 1.3.1.d: Cotton

Develop a vibrant cotton growing and processing industry.

Other Information:

The long-term goal is to develop a vibrant cotton growing and processing industry. Medium-term Expected Outcome -- The medium term outcome for the sector is increased production of garments made from locally woven cotton cloth as opposed to imported synthetic fabrics. This will require development of a local textile industry to increase the flow of cotton from growers and ginners, thereby having a positive impact on the cotton sector and opening up textile products for export. Currently, the linkages between the cotton sub-sector (production of lint cotton) and textile and garment production (manufacturing) are weak. In addition, there are opportunities for increased volumes of cotton lint export within the region, especially in South Africa and neighbouring countries. Key Strategies -- Government will encourage the integration of production, processing and marketing of cotton products. Other strategies include: * Producing raw cotton and ginning; * Garment manufacturing for export markets; * Reducing out of factory costs such as transportation; and * Identifying and negotiating trade opportunities at the regional, international and global level.

Objective 1.3.1.e: Wheat

Develop a vibrant wheat production and processing industry.

Other Information:

The long-term goal is to develop a vibrant wheat production and processing industry. Medium-term Expected Outcome -- The medium term expected outcome is increased production of wheat by expanding the current hectarage from 2000 hectares to 30000 hectares. Reliance on rainfed conditions, poor agronomic practices and seed quality, amongst other constraints have consequently led to low wheat production of below 2000 metric tonnes per annum since 1991/92 season. This is far short of the estimated national consumption of 60,000 metric tonnes per annum. Key Strategies -- The main strategy is to increase production, processing and marketing of wheat. Other strategies include: * Promoting appropriate agronomic practices through extension and training; * Providing improved seed varieties and other farm inputs; * Promoting irrigation technology to expand production; * Promoting small and medium scale wheat processing, and * Improving market access and intelligence.


Goal 2: Irrigation & Water Development

Ensure that water resources are well protected and managed to meet agricultural, domestic and industrial demands.

Objective(s):

2.1: Access


Other Information:

Irrigation and water development is key for Malawi due to its direct linkages with agriculture and energy. Irrigation will contribute towards reduction of the over dependence on rain-fed agriculture while proper conservation of water will also contribute towards the generation of electricity. In addition, water is also an important resource for both household and industrial use hence ensuring availability of water is therefore central to achieving the MGDS objectives. Management of water supply and sanitation draws many players from donor community, public entities, civil society and private institutions. Significant progress has been made with the introduction of coordination structures for the various players in the sector. Despite this, the sector faces challenges with the degradation of water resources, inadequate services coverage, increasing water demand as a result of increasing population, HIV and AIDS prevalence, insufficient capacity, inadequate promotion of hygiene and sanitation, lack of an integrated approach to water resources management and development, climate change and lack of mitigation measures for water-related disasters. On water resource management, the challenges are several, and these include lack of a good monitoring and evaluation system, and a good management information system resulting in improper documentation of information and lack of a consolidated database on water point allocations. In addition, vandalism and theft of water supply and sanitation facilities is wide spread in the sector. Key Strategies -- To achieve sustainable and integrated water resource management and development, Malawi will need more efficient and effective practices by among other things, empowering national authorities to manage using integrated water resource management approach and establish good monitoring systems. The provision of water will also be linked closely to agriculture and other environmental problems that affect water supply such as soil erosion due to poor farming practices. Main strategies include the following: * Constructing and promoting small and medium scale irrigation schemes to enhance food crop production. * Constructing multi-purpose dams that apart from generating electricity will also be used for irrigation, piped water supply, as well as promoting fish farming. * Improving sustainable access to water supply and sanitation in urban, periurban and rural areas by establishing water supply and sanitation systems using demand responsive and demand driven approaches, and the establishment of contingency water supply reserves and sanitation backups. * Integrating rural water supply and participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation. * Empowering national authorities to manage water resources using integrated water resource management approaches; * Establishing good monitoring systems; * Improving the quality of surface and ground water and developing a system for pollution control; * Improving sustainable access to water supply and sanitation in urban, peri urban and rural areas by among others establishing water supply and sanitation systems using demand responsive and demand driven approaches; * Establishing contingency water supply reserves and sanitation backups; and * Integrating rural water supply with participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation.

Objective 2.1: Access

Increase access to water resources averaging a distance of 500m from communities.


Goal 3: Transport Infrastructure Development

Objective(s):

3.1: Road Transport

3.1.1: Trucking

3.2: Water Transport

3.2.1: Inland Shipping Network


Other Information:

Better domestic and regional connectivity entails improving the current state of transport infrastructure in the country. However,the state of Malawi’s transport infrastructure is characterized by poor road network, poor and limited access to ports, limited air links, freight and rail capacity. The inadequacy of the transportation infrastructure results in high costs of production, where transportation represents 55 percent of costs, compared to 17 percent in other less developed countries. With the new policy direction, it is expected that improved transportation will contribute to reduced lead times on export, decreased cost of domestic trucking, lower costs of cross-border and transit trade with neighbouring countries, lower cost to reach domestic, regional and international markets (supply and distribution) and improved mobility and connectivity of rural producing communities to markets. Particular emphasis will be placed on the following two areas: * Improving mobility and accessibility of the population to key road corridors within and out of Malawi while facilitating the improved mobility and accessibility of rural communities to goods and services in the rural areas at low cost. * Implementing the Shire Zambezi Waterway programme in order to open up the country to the Indian Ocean.

Objective 3.1: Road Transport

Reduce the cost of road transportation in order to contribute positively to economic growth.

Other Information:

High transport costs and poor access to some parts of the country remain an important threat to fostering economic growth in Malawi. High transport costs partly result from the country’slandlockedpositionandsmallmarketsizeandalsofromthecontinuing inefficient operating environment faced by the domestic and international operators in spite of liberalization of the transport sector. Poor access roads mainly result from the deterioratingconditionofthecountry’soverallroadnetwork,especiallyintherural areas. This problem is compounded by the enormous backlog for maintenance of the road infrastructure, unsafe and impassable road network (37 percent is in poor condition), lack of competition, and high road taxes which increases the cost of trucking. Poor quality feeder roads also impact on the ability of rural areas to engage in economic activities. Key Strategies -- The strategies will concentrate on ensuring availability of adequate, safe, reliable, efficientandeconomicaltransportservicesinkeycorridorsthatmeetthecountry’s current road transport needs and aligned to the future vision. Main strategies will include: * Providing adequate network of roads based on appropriate standards through rehabilitationandupgradingof“allweather”roadstomeetsub-regional agreed standards; * Undertaking routine road maintenance to clear backlog through use of modified“Performance-BasedTermMaintenanceContracts”; * Building the capacity of local private sector to construct quality roads; * Replacing timber-deck bridges with concrete decks; * Maintaining urban and rural road networks; * Upgrading all unpaved roads from fair to good condition; * Involving the private sector in the monitoring and operations of road transport services; * Implementing appropriate road user charges; * Harmonisingthecountry’shighwaycode,roadsigns,signalsandaxle-load regulations within the region; * Improving information coordination on the flow of regional and international cargo through the development of private sector freight forwarding companies; and * Creating one stop border post on all major transport corridors to allow for the smooth flow of traffic and developing an integrated approach to road safety.

Objective 3.1.1: Trucking

Reduce lead times on export, decrease cost of domestic trucking, lower costs of cross-border and transit trade, lower cost to reach domestic, regional and international markets and improve mobility and connectivity of rural communities to markets.

Other Information:

In the medium-term improved transportation is expected to contribute to reduced lead times on export, decreased cost of domestic trucking, lower costs of cross-border and transit trade, lower cost to reach domestic, regional and international markets and improved mobility and connectivity of rural communities to markets. Efforts will emphasise on improving mobility and accessibility of the population to key road corridors within and outside Malawi while facilitating improved mobility and accessibility of rural communities to goods and services in the rural areas at low cost.

Objective 3.2: Water Transport

Open up the linkages to the sea.

Other Information:

Water provides a better and cheaper alternative means of transport for certain parts of the country and as a link to the sea. Malawi has not benefited much from this mode of transport because the port system is inadequate to handle the present exports of agro-processing industry and imports. Furthermore, siltation at Beira, which is the nearest port, is a major constraint. Given the current transport bottlenecks, this mode of transport has been prioritised as an alternative means for export-led growth. Government, therefore, has an obligation to maintain the ports and explore ways to involve the private sector. In view of this, Government has prioritised the Shire Zambezi waterway project as the main activity in this sub-sector.

Objective 3.2.1: Inland Shipping Network

Ensure an active inland shipping network in local and international shipping, and that trade and tourism are facilitated in a safe manner while protecting the environment.

Other Information:

Key Strategies -- For the water transport to be effective, the sub-sector will have to be closely linked to the rail and road networks. For instance developing the Shire Zambezi Waterways will demand that the rail from Nsanje to major commercial cities like Blantyre, Lilongwe and Mzuzu be developed or rehabilitated for maximum benefit. Main strategies will include: * Developing an efficient and productive maritime transport system that meets national and regional requirements; and * Dredging, opening up channels and acquiring badges or ships, which would navigate the Shire River through Zambezi and to the Indian ocean.


Goal 4: Energy Generation & Supply

Generate sufficient amount of energy to meet the economic and social demands.

Objective(s):

4.1: Energy Supply


Other Information:

Energy is a crucial input into any industrial processing and serves as the life-blood for any economy. Malawi is relatively well endowed with a wide variety of energy resources but a full potential of the energy sub-sector remains far from being realized owing to a number of structural, operational and institutional challenges. The provision of energy in Malawi is inadequate, unreliable and inaccessible to all who need it. This is mainly due to lack of competition in the sector; siltation resulting from deforestation; poor farming practices and management; weeds and water hyacinth on the Shire River which affects hydro-generation; expensive spare parts which inhibit maintenance of equipment leading to frequent breakdowns; and lack of progress on regional interconnection and commitment to tap into other energy sources. In addition to these challenges is the limitation of public investment in power generation and widespread vandalism of equipment. A well-developed energy sub-sector can enhance stable supply of power, increased generation and transmission capacity for improved service delivery and increased output in the economic and social sectors, respectively. Increased generation and transmission capacity of electricity will support other programmes such as Malawi Rural Electrification Project (MAREP). The sub-sector also has strong backward and forward linkages with other sub-sectors, for instance, use of power transmission lines would also increase capacity for telecommunications. The objective of the MGDS is to reduce the number and duration of blackouts, increase access to reliable, affordable electricity in rural areas and other targeted areas, improve coordination and the balance between the needs for energy and those of other high growth sectors such as tourism and mining.

Objective 4.1: Energy Supply

[Provide] accessible, reliable and sustainable energy supply.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcome -- In the medium term, it is expected that the country will have accessible, reliable and sustainable energy supply. At the same time, rural communities will begin to use alternative energy supplies in underserved areas while managing energy related environmental impacts. Key Strategies -- To achieve an efficient energy supply, strong inter-sectoral linkages especially with the water, natural resources and agriculture sectors will have to be established. An efficient supply of hydropower requires a constant supply of water through proper conservation of catchment areas, connections to neighbouring countries and exploring into other sources of energy. The sub-sector will also require strong public-private partnerships especially in generation, distribution and transmission. Main strategies include: * Improving efficiency in generation, transmission and distribution; * Ensuring provision of reliable electrification to key mining, irrigation, business, tourism, and other economic activities. * Improving management of Electricity Supply Commission of Malawi (ESCOM) and other service providers * Accelerating implementation of regional interconnectivity; * Constructing mini hydro power stations along the Shire and other major rivers to supplement electricity supply in the three regions. * Expanding the Rural Electrification Programme (increase resources, promote development of micro hydropower stations and use of solar energy for off grid power supply) and use of both grid and off-grid options; * Ensuring that energy provision takes into account and puts in place measures to deal with negative environmental impacts that may set in, and * Encouraging private sector investment in energy generation, transmission and distribution.


Goal 5: Integrated Rural Development

Develop rural growth centers to contribute effectively to economic growth through the creation of employment opportunities thereby enhance redistribution of wealth to all citizens and reduce rural-urban migration.

Objective(s):

5.1: Rural Growth Centers


Other Information:

The MGDS recognize that broad based economic growth and development cannot be achieved if rural areas with potential for growth are sidelined. In this context, Government will strive to promote integrated rural development among other things through rural growth centers. This is expected to resuscitate the rural economies and transform them into potential engines for economic growth that will contribute to sustainable growth that will result in re-distribution of wealth to all citizens while also mitigating the negative consequences of rural-urban migration. Emphasis will be placed on infrastructure development such as roads and communications, energy supply, agro-processing and manufacturing. This is envisaged to promote private sector investment that will create employment and improve incomes of the rural people.

Objective 5.1: Rural Growth Centers

Create employment to enhance incomes for rural communities and in-turn reduce rural-urban migration trends.

Other Information:

Key Strategies -- Integrated rural development calls for coordinated efforts from a number areas. In particular, the provision of key infrastructure is a prerequisite if rural growth centers are to develop. As such, the main strategies will include the following: * Promoting the growth and development of rural growth centers through the provision of utilities and communications network to facilitate the linkage of production areas to markets; * Implementing rural electrification programme effectively; * Promoting and implementing economic empowerment programes such as MARDEF and OVOP; and * Improving the process of providing title to land in order to encourage investment through ownership of land.


Goal 6: Nutrition Disorders, HIV & AIDS

Prevent and Manage Nutrition Disorders, HIV and AIDS.

Objective(s):

6.1: HIV & AIDS

6.1.1: Behaviour

6.2: Nutrition

6.2.1: Malnutrition & Disease

6.3: Nutrition, HIV & AIDS

6.3.1: Dietary Practices


Other Information:

Malawi like many other Sub-Saharan African countries has been severely affected by HIV and AIDS. Its impact remains devastating and the country’s efforts are inadequate given the pace of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Poverty and HIV and AIDS are reciprocally influenced. Despite coordinated efforts the country still faces a number of challenges in containing the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS on development. The HIV and AIDS pandemic has compounded the dual burden of malnutritionanddisease.Itincreasesthebody’sneedformicronutrients,caloriesand proteinwhilesimultaneouslydecreasingthebody’sabilitytowork.Thismeansthat as more nutritious food is needed within a household, less labour is available with which to produce or obtain it. This leads to less nutritious food for everyone else in the household and inadequate diet for the person living with HIV and AIDS. This means that tackling HIV and AIDS problems alone will not be a lasting solution. As such, Government advocates the need for addressing issues of HIV and AIDS and nutrition as a package. This will translate in increased knowledge of the interaction between nutrition and HIV and AIDS; improved and diversified dietary practices for people living with HIV and AIDS; and increased provision of HIV and AIDS-related nutrition interventions.

Objective 6.1: HIV & AIDS

Prevent further spread of HIV and AIDS and mitigate its impact on the socio-economic and psychosocial status of the general population and high risk groups.

Other Information:

HIV and AIDS Prevention and Management -- HIV and AIDS is a socio-cultural, economic, political, development and health issue which has brought havoc to all sectors of the economy in Malawi and other developing countries. This has created a big human power shortage of ranging between 25-60 percent in developing countries. It is a social problem because of its negative consequences on the communities and social structures. It is a cultural issue because some cultural practices and beliefs fuel the spread of the disease and mask positive traits of the system while encouraging stigma, discrimination and denial. It is a political problem because a sick person will not contribute to the political development of the country. It is a health issue because it affects directly a large number of people and the health-care system itself or fabrics of society. HIV and AIDS is an economic issue as it leads to reduction in economic growth by reducing the productivity of the labour force and drains investment resources in all sectors. HIV and AIDS is a development issue because it affects negatively all sectors of the economy. Malawi like many other Sub-Saharan African countries has been severely affected by HIV and AIDS. The first case was reported in 1985 and to-date, despite so many yearsofnationalresponse,theimpactremainsdevastatingandthecountry’sefforts are inadequate given the pace of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Poverty and HIV and AIDS are reciprocally influenced and Malawi happens to have more than 52.4 percent of its population living in poverty. The national adult HIV prevalence in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years has slightly declined from 14.4percent in 2003 to 14.0 percent in 2005. HIV and AIDS prevalence among antenatal clients has also declined from 19.8 percent in 2003 to 16.9 percent in 2005. Approximately 930,000 people are living with HIV and AIDS, including 70,000 children under the age of 15. According to the Malawi Demographic Health Survey (MDHS 2004), prevalence of HIV and AIDS was estimated at 12.8 percent of the population and around 30-35 percent of all pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years and 640,000 people have died of AIDS at a rate of 86,000-100,000 annually. HIV and AIDS is now the leading cause of death in the most productive age group, resulting in 50,000 to 70,000 adult and child deaths annually. HIV and AIDS mortality rate is close to 700 deaths per 100,000 people. OutofMalawi’sonemillionorphans,500,000havelostoneor both of their parents to AIDS. A fifth of all households in Malawi take care of one or more orphans; 49 percent of these are female headed Malawi’sresponsetoHIV andAIDSbeganin1986,initiallyconcentratingon preventing further transmission of the virus. Since then Malawi has demonstrated increased commitment to addressing HIV and AIDS through the establishment of the National AIDS Commission (NAC) in July 2001 to manage a multi-sectoral response to the pandemic. The country has made substantial investment to build and maintain a positive partnership with donors, bilateral and multilateral organizations and various stakeholders. Recently, Government has established the Malawi Partnership Forum on AIDS, where all stakeholders come under one umbrella for improved coordination and harmonization of the national response. Over the past fifteen years the country has moved from a point of denial to a situation where there is almost universal awareness of HIV and AIDS. In response to the burden of the epidemic on the formal health care system, the Government has encouraged communities and households to take up the challenge of providing home based care and support. At present, public organizations, community-based organizations (CBOs), Civil Society organizations, public, and private sector institutions have all become engaged in various ways in the fight against HIV and AIDS. This has led to a dramatic increase in the number of community groups providing home based care as well as increased number of trained community home based care providers. In order to institutionalise work on nutrition, HIV and AIDS, the Department of Nutrition and HIV and AIDS in the Office of the President and Cabinet was created to coordinate these activities. Nonetheless, Malawi still faces a number of challenges in containing the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS on development. Key constraints in containing the HIV and AIDS scourge are: hunger and poverty which make individuals more vulnerable to infection; inadequate supply of Anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and access to nutritious diets; low levels of education; limited institutional capacity; deep-rooted harmful sociocultural values and practices, beliefs and traditions and poor coordination amongst the service providers.

Objective 6.1.1: Behaviour

Improve behaviour, particularly the high risk groups.

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcomes -- The medium-term expected outcomes include: improved behaviour change of people particularly the high risk groups which include the youth, commercial sex workers, mobile and other vulnerable populations; increased number of people accessing voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) management services; increased number of women accessing the Preventive Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) services; improved health status or extended life of the infected people through increased uptake of ARVs and nutritious diets and nutrition therapy; and community home based care services; protection and care of children and families affected by AIDS; and improved planning, management and coordination of all stakeholders and development partners in the fight against HIV and AIDS increased number of traditional counsellors trained in HIV and AIDS education. Key Strategies -- HIV and AIDS requires a multi-pronged approach of prevention and treatment to reduce its spread and impact. Main strategies include: * Improving knowledge and capacity of young people, orphans, the elderly and physically challenged and other vulnerable groups to practice safer sexual intercourse and increase their access to HIV testing and counselling; and behaviour change. * Initiating and strengthening joint planning, monitoring and evaluation processes among national authorities, stakeholders and development partners; * Implementing and increasing equitable access to ARVs and treatment of opportunistic infections; * Building and strengthening the capacity of public and private organizations to mainstream HIV and AIDS into their core businesses; * Promoting high quality community home-based care services, adequate nutrition, including provision of nutrition therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA); * Expanding services for prevention of mother to child transmission, testing and counselling, access to condoms, STI management, and access to behaviour change communication; * Integrating the elderly, orphans and the physically challenged affected by HIV and AIDS into the mainstream development * Promoting adequate nutrition, including provision of nutrition therapy that cover assessment, counselling, education and demonstration, supplementary feeding, therapeutic feeding, referral to health facility and production of high nutritive value foods for a nutritious diet to HIV and AIDS individuals; * Producing, enacting and enforcing HIV and AIDS legislation. * Improving the provision of support and protection of the infected and affected groups; and * Building capacity at all levels in the national response to HIV and AIDS with special focus for local service delivery.

Objective 6.2: Nutrition

Ensure nutritional well-being of all Malawians.

Other Information:

Nutrition is associated with health in the sense that malnutrition can lead to ill health. Malnutrition is both a cause and a consequence of poverty in developing countries and continues to retard economic growth and development. The effect of under nutrition is wasting, under-weight, stunting and mental retardation, which has far reaching consequences. A poorly nourished body is primary and highly susceptible to infections such as Tuberculosis, malaria, diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, HIV and AIDS. Under nutrition is a factor commonly associated with maternal and child/infant mortality. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is very high in Malawi, with under-five children stunting at 48.0 percent; wasting at 5.0 percent, increasing to 9.0 percent during the lean periods. Micronutrient malnutrition such as sub-clinical Vitamin A deficiency is at 80.0 percent of pre-school children, 38.0 percent of school age children, 57.0 percent of child-bearing age women and 38.0 percent in men. Anaemia is at 73.0 percent of pre-school aged children, 22.0 percent of school aged children, 46.0 percent of non-pregnant women, 47.0 percent of pregnant women, and 17.0percentofmen.IodinedeficiencydisordersarealsocommondespiteMalawi’s adoption of Salt Iodization Act. It is estimated that 64.0 percent of children have low Intelligent Quotient (IQ) in areas with high iodine disorders. The underlying causes of under-nutrition include household food insecurity resulting from inadequate food production or low incomes; poor child feeding and care practices; inadequate education and lack of knowledge which lead to poor food processing and utilization and sometimes cultural beliefs which deny women and children consumption of high nutritive value foods. In addition, poor institutional coordination of nutrition programmes has also been a big constraint.

Objective 6.2.1: Malnutrition & Disease

Reduce levels of under nutrition and incidences of dietary related non-communicable diseases and micro-nutrient disorders.

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcome -- The key expected medium-term outcomes are effective utilization of quality food and the biological utilization of nutrients in the body; reduced levels of under nutrition; reduced incidences of dietary related non-communicable diseases and micro-nutrient disorders; increased human productivity; and strengthened structures and coordination for implementation of policy and programme and enhanced capacity for nutritionists and dieticians at all levels. Key Strategies -- Effective implementation of the nutrition strategies will require co-ordination among the key stakeholders. To successfully achieve the intended goal and outcomes, to a greater extent, will rely on what happens in other sectors like agriculture and food security, education, health and gender. Main strategies include; * Promoting the control, prevention and treatment of micro-nutrient deficiency disorders particularly those caused by vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies; * Promoting control, prevention and treatment of diseases that have direct impact on nutrition and human well-being; * Intensifying community nutrition assessment, counselling, education and demonstration, supplementary and therapeutic feeding, referral to Nutrition Rehabilitation Units; * Promoting the production of nutritious foods and livestock; * Harmonizing and improving food and nutrition security information system for evidence based interventions; * Reviewing and including nutrition in curricula of all learning and training institutions; * Targeting the elderly, pregnant and lactating mothers, under five and school going children, orphans and the physically challenged with nutrition services to improve their well-being; * Enhancing co-ordination of nutrition programmes; * Building capacity for nutritionists, dieticians, and community nutrition workers; * Producing, enacting and enforcing nutrition legislation; and * Monitoring and managing dietary related non-communicable maladies.

Objective 6.3: Nutrition, HIV & AIDS

Improve the nutritional status and support services for people living with and affected by HIV and AIDS.

Other Information:

Interaction of Nutrition, HIV and AIDS -- HIV and AIDS affects nutrition through increases in resting energy expenditure, reduction in food intake, poor nutrient absorption and loss, and complex metabolic alterations that culminate in weight loss and wasting. Malnutrition reduces overall immunity and increases the risk of diseases and related conditions, which expedite the progression of HIV into AIDS. HIV, in turn, destroys the natural immune system and increases the risk of infections and diseases. These diseases prevent adequate intake and uptake of vital nutrients. Additionally, both the disease itself and antiretroviral therapyincreasethebody’soverallnutrientdemand.Asthevirusprogressesfrom Stage 1 toStage2,achild’senergydemandincreasesby10.0percent,andbyupto 20.0 percent at Stage 3. In HIV positive adults, caloric need can increase up to 30- 40.0 percent above the normal recommended daily energy requirement in stage 3. The HIV and AIDS pandemic has accordingly compounded the dual burden of malnutritionanddisease.HIVandotherchronicdiseasesincreasethebody’sneedfor micronutrients,caloriesandproteinwhilesimultaneouslydecreasingthebody’s ability to work. This means that as more nutritious food is needed within a household, less labour is available with which to produce or obtain it. This leads to less nutritious food for everyone else in the household and inadequate diet for the person living with HIV/AIDS.

Objective 6.3.1: Dietary Practices

Improve and diversify dietary practices for people living with HIV and AIDS

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcomes -- The medium-term expected outcomes include increased knowledge of the interaction between nutrition and HIV and AIDS; improved and diversified dietary practices for people living with HIV and AIDS; and increased provision of HIV and AIDS-related nutrition interventions. Key Strategies: * Recruitment and training of adequate personnel; * Reviewing and including nutrition, HIV and AIDS interaction in education curricula of all learning and training institutions; * Compiling and disseminating best approaches to providing nutritional therapy to PLHA; * Building capacity for nutrition service providers on specialised nutrition care for PLHAs; * Providing workplace-based nutrition therapy to enhance positive living for PLHAs; * Facilitating access to sustainable economic social protection for households affected by HIV and AIDS; and * Building capacity at all levels with special focus on service delivery.


Goal 7: Economic Growth

Sustainable Economic Growth

Objective(s):

7.1: Growth Sectors

7.1.1: Tourism

7.1.1.1: Products & Services

7.1.1.2: Capacity

7.1.1.3: Reach

7.1.1.4: Investment, Infrastructure & Visitor Management

7.1.2: Mining

7.1.2.1: Geological Surveys

7.1.2.2: Environmental & Safety Standards

7.1.2.3: Small Scale Miners

7.1.2.4: Investment

7.1.2.5: Information & Geographical Mapping

7.1.3: Manufacturing

7.1.3.1: Quality & Productivity

7.1.3.2: Skills

7.1.3.3: Malawi Bureau of Standards

7.1.3.4: Investment Incentives

7.1.3.5: Cost of Doing Business

7.2: Private Sector Development

7.2.1: Infrastructure

7.2.2: Vocational Training

7.2.3: Productivity & Quality

7.3: Export Led Growth

7.3.1: External Markets

7.3.2: Lead Times

7.3.3: Product Marketability

7.3.4: Trade Network & Information

7.3.5: Knowledge

7.4: Conservation

7.4.1: Fisheries

7.4.1.1: Enforcement

7.4.1.2: Modern Techniques

7.4.1.3: Community Training

7.4.1.4: Small-Scale Fish Farming & Deep-Water Fishing

7.4.2: Forestry

7.4.2.1: Productivity & Value

7.4.2.2: Reforestation

7.4.2.3: Enforcement

7.4.2.4: Afforestation & Environmental Rehabilitation

7.4.2.5: Incentives

7.4.3: Environmental Protection

7.4.3.1: Enforcement

7.4.3.2: Cooperation

7.4.3.3: Awareness

7.4.3.4: School Curricula

7.4.3.5: Environmental Management Information System

7.4.4: Wildlife

7.4.4.1: Enforcement

7.4.4.2: Infrastructure

7.4.4.3: Tsetse Flies

7.4.4.4: Collaborative Management

7.4.4.5: Problem Animal Control

7.4.4.6: Eco-Tourism

7.4.4.7: Wildlife Research & Monitoring

7.5: Economic Empowerment

7.5.1: Roads

7.5.2: Cooperatives

7.5.3: Micro-Finance

7.5.4: Training

7.5.5: Women

7.6: Land & Housing

7.6.1: Markets & Transaction Costs

7.6.2: Privatisation

7.6.3: Awareness & Participation

7.6.4: Land Use Practices

7.6.5: Antidiscrimination

7.6.6: Allocation

7.6.7: Tax


Other Information:

Sustainable economic growth is central to Malawi’s ability to reduce poverty and achieve the MDGs. Without this growth, it will be impossible to deliver Government’svisionofcreatingwealth and employment for all the people of Malawi, transforming from a consumption-based economy to a production-based economy, and gradually emerging as an industrial nation. To this end, Malawi will seek to increase domestic and foreign investment in productive sectors. It will also seek to promote exports by addressing supply constraints, to diversify the economy and ensure that this growth is shared among all Malawians. The strategy for sustained economic growth requires action on multiple fronts in order to deliver on these national goals. These include: maximizing the contribution to economic growth through the potential growth sectors; putting in place an enabling environment for private sector led growth; improving regional integration; and empowering rural communities to be part of economic activities. Sustainable economic growth is comprised of six sub themes namely; potential growth sectors, enabling environment for private sector led growth, export-led growth, conservation of the natural resource base, economic empowerment, land and housing. Sub themes on agriculture and food security that are particularly key for the development of this country hence have been singled out and placed as a key priority area and are discussed in Chapter 4. Table 5.1 presents a summary of the long-term goals and medium-term expected outcomes of the sub themes under sustainable economic growth.

Objective 7.1: Growth Sectors

Maximizing contribution to economic growth through potential growth sectors

Other Information:

The economy has shown fluctuating, but generally low growth rates over the last decade. The real GDP growth has been highly variable, mainly because of the poor performance of the agricultural sector due to over-dependence on rainfed agriculture, unfavourable macro-economic environment and high cost of production. The low growth rates, coupled with a population growth rate of nearly 2.0 percent per annum, have resulted in a sharp fall in per capita consumption. In general, there has been limited progress on economic base diversification. Therefore, agriculture continues to be the main source of economic growth for Malawi. The industrial sector remains basic and is constrained by high real interest rates, high transport and energy costs. Overall, the economy is vulnerable to a number of factors such as drought, high transport costs, and over-dependence on unreliable external aid. Exports remain heavily concentrated in a narrow range of primary commodities, with tobacco accounting for over 70.0 percent of foreign exchange earnings. The majority of these commodities are sold at low and declining world prices. This is a result of limited value addition capacity within the manufacturing sector. Economic growth is further constrained by the land-locked nature of Malawi, low per capita income resulting in low effective demand within the country; unreliable infrastructure, chronic food insecurity and limited opportunities for exports. These represent special barriers to private investment and the strategies herein are designed to address these Malawi specific barriers. For Malawi to achieve an annual economic growth rate of at least 6.0 percent, there must be a concerted effort by the private sector, Government, and all stakeholders to accelerate growth and economic diversification. In much as the economy continues to be driven by the agricultural sector, the other sectors of manufacturing, mining, tourism and agro-processing will play an important role in generating economic growth. As such the creation of a favourable macroeconomic environment will be a prerequisite for investment in these sectors. The goal is to increase productivity, diversify the economy and achieve export led growth. To attain this, potential growth sectors will be positioned to realise the targeted economic growth and increase employment. The MEGS identified tourism, mining, manufacturing among others as potential high growth sectors. Currently, these sectors face specific constraints that hinder their ability to reach full potential. MGDS will, therefore, focus on addressing these specific constraints and engage private sector in honest dialogue to implement strategies to achieve the desired medium term outcomes.

Objective 7.1.1: Tourism

Increase the contribution of tourism to GDP from 1.8 percent to 8.0 percent by 2011.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcome: To establish Malawi as a principal and leading eco-tourism destination in Africa. Apart from looking for tourists outside Malawi, there is also an opportunity to increase domestic tourism. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, tourism is expected to generate 7.1 percent of new jobs annually in Malawi. It is expected that the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP will increase from 1.8 percent in 2005 to 8.0 percent by 2011. A number of constraints need to be addressed in order to achieve the expected outcome. These include; high transport costs and poor access roads to tourist destinations, poor and uncoordinated promotion activities, and threats to flora and fauna. Key Strategies: Government will work closely with the private sector to strategically diversify tourism products, identify niche opportunities, and make Malawi’stouristdestinations a good value proposition against competitors in the region. To facilitate private sector investment in tourism Government will priotitise the construction and rehabilitation of roads and landing strips to key destinations, build capacity of communities in tourism through tailor-made courses in training institutions and coordinate efforts for a unified position on tourism promotion to reach potential customers in international and regional markets.

Objective 7.1.1.1: Products & Services

Develop quality and diversified products and services based on the natural and cultural resource heritage to attract tourists

Objective 7.1.1.2: Capacity

Increase capacity to service additional tourists in accommodation facilities that are competitive with other tourist destinations in the region, including transportation links to tourism destinations

Objective 7.1.1.3: Reach

Improve the reach of tourism products to domestic, regional and international markets

Objective 7.1.1.4: Investment, Infrastructure & Visitor Management

Facilitate investment, infrastructure development and visitor management programmes in undeveloped areas with proven tourism potential

Objective 7.1.2: Mining

To increase the contribution of the mining sector to GDP by at least 10 percent annually.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcome: The medium term expected outcome for mining is to increase production output and value added by small, medium and large-scale miners, to supply industrial raw materials in the country (import substitution) and to begin exporting minerals. To achieve this, a number of constraints facing the sector need to be addressed. These include; lack of up-to-date information on mineral resources, poorly coordinated institutional setting, high initial investment costs and inadequate incentives for private sector to engage in medium scale mining. In addition, small-scale miners lack skills to add value to mineral products, while electricity disruptions threaten production and safety of miners. Key Strategies: Government will work with mining companies to accelerate the geological and mineral data acquisition and dissemination to strengthen public-private partnerships in infrastructure provision. It will continue to provide extension services to small-scale miners to learn value added skills. It will also improve the regulation and monitoring of mining to reduce threats to the environment, enforce safety standards, and reduce smuggling.

Objective 7.1.2.1: Geological Surveys

Strengthening the institutional capacity of Geological Surveys to effectively promote mining, monitoring and enforcement of environmental safety standards

Objective 7.1.2.2: Environmental & Safety Standards

Ensuring compliance by small, medium and large scale miners to environmental and safety standards

Objective 7.1.2.3: Small Scale Miners

Supporting small scale miners by integrating them into the minerals market and increasing their value added

Objective 7.1.2.4: Investment

Increasing investment by private sector companies in medium and large scale mining

Objective 7.1.2.5: Information & Geographical Mapping

Providing up-to-date information and geographical mapping on mineral resources.

Objective 7.1.3: Manufacturing

The long-term goal is to increase manufacturing output with growing value addition, export development and employment creation.

Other Information:

Medium-term Expected Outcome: The medium term outcome for the sector is to increase the contribution of the manufacturing sector to economic growth. Currently, the sector is small, output has stagnated and there is low capacity utilization across all sub-sectors. Capacity utilization is hindered by high cost of doing business and poor management. Most firms use relatively simple technology and rely on imports for their intermediate inputs. In addition, the industry faces difficulties in accessing markets due to low product quality and high costs of inputs, poor infrastructure (roads, water, and energy) and a discretionary system of taxes, rebates and incentives. Key Strategies: The Government will work with the private sector to establish conditions for manufacturing to take off. The private sector will look for ways to strengthen the links with raw material sources, especially in the agricultural sector and consider additional processing in the rural areas. Government will also take appropriate measures to promote private sector investment among other things through empowering indigenous businesses.

Objective 7.1.3.1: Quality & Productivity

Improving the quality of products and productivity of both labour and capital

Objective 7.1.3.2: Skills

Enhancing skills through better integration of science and technology into vocational training

Objective 7.1.3.3: Malawi Bureau of Standards

Enhancing the capabilities of Malawi Bureau of Standards and other related bodies to perform their functions

Stakeholder(s):

Malawi Bureau of Standards

Objective 7.1.3.4: Investment Incentives

Developing additional incentives for investment including redefining the roles and responsibilities of support institutions, and working to target infrastructure phasing to the benefit of the manufacturing sector

Objective 7.1.3.5: Cost of Doing Business

Reducing the cost of doing business by reviewing licenses, taxes and good governance.

Objective 7.2: Private Sector Development

Enabling Environment for Private Sector Development

Other Information:

Government recognizes that the private sector is an engine for growth and wealth creation. In Malawi, the private sector is not well developed. Private sector investment has remained very low averaging around 3.0 percent of GDP. This low level of investment has negatively affected the economy´s ability to diversify the economic base and exports. This situation has arisen due to poor macroeconomic environment, high transportation costs, and supply-side constraints. The participation of private investors in the economy has also remained limited due to low investor confidence, poor management, and limited domestic market. Goal: The long-term goal is to create an enabling environment for private sector to increase domestic and foreign investment. To achieve this goal, Government will support, encourage and engage the private sector and all relevant stakeholders in result oriented dialogue to ensure tangible improvement in the business environment. Emphasis will be on economic policy, legal framework, infrastructure and good governance. Deliberate efforts will also be made to empower the indigenous Malawians so that they benefit from their engagement in the economic activities. Medium Term Expected Outcome: It is expected that in the medium term there will be an increase in the number of local firms producing goods that are competitive in regional and international markets. MEGS highlights a number of constraints currently facing the private sector in Malawi. These include deterioration of infrastructure, irregular power supply, unreliable water supply and sanitation services, low access to credit, high tax rates and high transport costs. There is also a significant shortage of skilled workers to supply the private sector with a productive workforce. The education system is not producing enough graduates to meet current and future economic needs. Besides, training offered is inappropriate for business needs. This is further compounded by productivity losses due to high incidences of malaria, HIV and AIDS.

Objective 7.2.1: Infrastructure

Improving infrastructure especially access to reliable and seasonally priced electricity, water and improved inter-modal transport to regional and domestic markets through direct investment, privatisation, build, operate and transfer arrangements and public-private partnerships

Objective 7.2.2: Vocational Training

Improving vocational training by focusing on improving the TEVET system

Objective 7.2.3: Productivity & Quality

Improve worker productivity and ability of firms to produce quality products

Objective 7.3: Export Led Growth

The long-term goal is to turn Malawi from being a net importer to a net exporter and effectively integrate it into regional and international markets.

Other Information:

Medium Term Expected Outcomes: The medium term expected outcome is to increase the number of firms that are producing products that are competitive on regional and international markets. The national export strategy will include promoting production of goods and services where Malawi has comparative advantage to take advantage of the existing regional markets. There are a number of constraints to achieve this and these are unfavourable macroeconomic environment, poor infrastructure, high transport costs, unfavourable terms of trade, over-reliance on neighbouring countries for transportation of imports and exports due to the land-locked nature of Malawi, and lack of direct flights to Europe seriously undermines the potential for both tourism and the exportation of high value fresh agricultural and horticultural produce.

Objective 7.3.1: External Markets

Reducing cost of reaching external markets due to infrastructure by focusing on linkages through Mozambique, the Shire Zambezi waterway, and reduced restrictions on air transport

Objective 7.3.2: Lead Times

Reducing lead times on export and improved efficiency by improving the efficiency of customs, harmonizing border crossing with neighbours

Objective 7.3.3: Product Marketability

Improving marketability of products to international markets by improving certification (coupled with efforts under the enabling environment) and developing science and technology

Objective 7.3.4: Trade Network & Information

Improving trade network and information for firms for export

Objective 7.3.5: Knowledge

Maximizing the benefits of trade through better knowledge.

Objective 7.4: Conservation

Conservation of the natural resource base

Other Information:

Conservation of the natural resource base is an important factor that will contribute to the achievement of the sustained economic growth and development objectives of the MGDS. It is recognised that weak management of natural resources is a major problem in Malawi. This is exacerbated by population growth, environmental degradation, and encroachment of agricultural and settlement activities on forestry and marginal lands. There are three main areas of focus: fisheries, forestry, and wildlife conservation management. The goal is to improve management of fish species, forestry and wildlife biodiversity and reduce environmental degradation and conserve the natural resource base, while contributing to economic growth.

Objective 7.4.1: Fisheries

The long-term goal is to maintain fish species and bio-diversity.

Other Information:

Fish from Lake Malawi is a major source of the population’s protein requirement, and the industry provides direct and indirect employment. However, this sub-sector is characterized by low productivity, decline in fishery levels due to over exploitation, poor pre- and post-harvest handling by communities, and poor enforcement of legislation and preservation of fish... Medium term expected outcome: The medium term outcome is to ensure sustained fish availability for food and nutrition security as well as income generation. It is expected that an estimated 500 fish-ponds will be constructed/ rehabilitated and stocked with fish for breeding in the next five years. Key Strategies: The main strategy is to increase and sustain the productivity of small and large scale fisheries for both domestic and export markets. To achieve this, the following actions will be pursued among others:

Objective 7.4.1.1: Enforcement

Enforcing legislation to ensure sustainable production of fish

Objective 7.4.1.2: Modern Techniques

Promoting the use of modern techniques of fishing

Objective 7.4.1.3: Community Training

Capacity building through community training

Objective 7.4.1.4: Small-Scale Fish Farming & Deep-Water Fishing

Development of small-scale fish farming and deep-water fishing

Objective 7.4.2: Forestry

The long-term goal is to reduce environmental degradation.

Other Information:

Medium term expected outcomes: The medium term outcome is to ensure sustainable use and management of forestry resources. Currently there is a high rate of deforestation and uncoordinated management of forestry resources resulting in a lack of policy coherence. The denudation of forest cover accelerates soil erosion and also erodes natural resourcebased livelihoods. This is also caused by high dependence on wood as a source of household energy, limited skilled manpower, and dependence on public forests for raw materials. An estimated 200,000 hectares of forest-land is expected to be replanted by year 2011 in order to reverse the negative impacts of deforestation.

Objective 7.4.2.1: Productivity & Value

Improving productivity and value added by the industrial forestry sector, while balancing it with sustainable practices

Objective 7.4.2.2: Reforestation

Increasing reforestation efforts for key areas

Objective 7.4.2.3: Enforcement

Improving enforcement of regulations for forestry management

Objective 7.4.2.4: Afforestation & Environmental Rehabilitation

Initiating afforestation and environmental rehabilitation programmes in priority areas

Objective 7.4.2.5: Incentives

Introducing incentives for private sector participation in forestry

Objective 7.4.3: Environmental Protection

The long-term goal is to conserve natural resource base through sustainable use and management of natural resources and the environment.

Other Information:

Expected medium term outcome: The medium term expected outcome is improved compliance with environment and natural resource management laws. The main constraints to improved compliance include weak enforcement capacity, few economic incentives for compliance, and conflicting service delivery in management of natural resources. In addition, there is very limited environmental awareness in Malawi.

Objective 7.4.3.1: Enforcement

Improving enforcement of environmental policies and legislation

Objective 7.4.3.2: Cooperation

Improving cooperation in environmental management, natural resource management and development

Objective 7.4.3.3: Awareness

Raising awareness of issues of environmental protection

Objective 7.4.3.4: School Curricula

Incorporating environmental issues in school curricula

Objective 7.4.3.5: Environmental Management Information System

Establishing of an environmental management information system

Objective 7.4.4: Wildlife

The long-term goal is to conserve and manage protected areas and wildlife.

Other Information:

Medium-term expected outcome: The medium term expected outcome is to conserve, manage and develop wildlife resources to effectively contribute towards sustainable development of biodiversity and the tourism industry in Malawi. Wildlife forms a big percentage of tourism attraction. The sub-sector is constrained by a number of factors and these include; poaching, poor infrastructure development, Tsetse fly infestation, human-animal conflicts and understaffing.

Objective 7.4.4.1: Enforcement

Enforcing wildlife law

Objective 7.4.4.2: Infrastructure

Improving protected area infrastructure

Objective 7.4.4.3: Tsetse Flies

Eradicating tsetse flies in protected areas

Objective 7.4.4.4: Collaborative Management

Improving capacity and institutional building for collaborative management

Objective 7.4.4.5: Problem Animal Control

Improving capacity for problem animal control

Objective 7.4.4.6: Eco-Tourism

Improving eco-tourism in protected areas

Objective 7.4.4.7: Wildlife Research & Monitoring

Improving wildlife research and monitoring capacity

Objective 7.5: Economic Empowerment

The long-term goal is to create wealth for all people.

Other Information:

Malawi’s experience with economic empowerment programmes can be traced to the early 1960s. Despite the various initiatives by Government, donors, and NGOs, most Malawians are still involved in low-return, small-scale enterprises. The large-scale, high-value businesses are owned by foreigners and a minority of Malawians. Situational analysis as part of the development of National Economic Empowerment Policy shows that lack of empowerment is caused by a number of factors and manifests itself in the inability by the majority of citizens to control their economic destiny. It affects citizens depending on their race, gender, age, location and economic disposition. Rural communities are most affected by lack of facilities and infrastructure supporting the development of businesses. With over 85.0 percent of the population living in rural areas, there is need to specifically target rural communities if a significant impact in empowering Malawians is to be made. This will require that private investment in these areas is fostered and the culture of handouts and political patronage to rural communities is curtailed. Despite past efforts, women in Malawi remain marginalized compared to men. Women have less access to education, credit, land, and property. In addition, they have less access to employment opportunities both in the public and private sectors, technology, and other key market information to support their business activities. Unemployment among the youth has worsened over the last 20 years. Increasingly, the youth are completing their education with very little prospect of securing a job, or engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Due to lack of experience, very few employers are willing to recruit and train them on the job. Finally, people with disabilities are usually the most affected in terms of access to assets and other facilities required to become economically empowered. They experience difficulties accessing financial services and capital, skills development programmes, and technology developments. They are also the most affected by poor infrastructure such as roads, communication, and buildings not designed to accommodate or meet their special needs. A coherent and integrated approach is needed to contribute towards solving the various causes of disempowerment, which exist in different sectors of the poor and disadvantaged in Malawi... Medium Term Expected Outcome: The medium term expected outcome is to increase the productivity of rural communities and businesses, employment and income, increase the number of women and youth who are actively participating in public and private sectors and to ensure that the urban poor are able to contribute to economic development. Despite the various economic empowerment initiatives that Malawi has undertaken so far, many challenges remain that hinder Malawians from exploiting their full potential to participate in wealth creation. These include weak linkages to markets and few incentives for rural communities to organize themselves for productivity enhancement, limited access to micro-credit and high default rates, lack of business advisory services or training opportunities, and an increase in rural-urban migration. Key Strategies: Economic empowerment has many facets, and therefore requires a multi-pronged approach. This requires proper coordination to avoid overlaps and conflicts. While many economic empowerment initiatives exist in Malawi, there is no overall coordinating institution. Many policies have not been implemented because there has been no specialised institution to take full responsibility and authority. To be effective, proper coordination, management, monitoring and evaluation of all economic empowerment initiatives are needed. The main strategies include:

Objective 7.5.1: Roads

Targeting infrastructure development to ensure that rural roads link rural communities to markets

Objective 7.5.2: Cooperatives

Developing rural cooperatives to lower transaction costs of dealing with rural entrepreneurs and helping communities increase their bargaining power.

Other Information:

This will be through targeted programs for rural areas complemented by current programs undertaken by agro-processing companies

Objective 7.5.3: Micro-Finance

Strengthening the policy environment for micro-finance, including improved coordination of donor programs to decrease market distortions.

Other Information:

This will focus on providing innovative credit schemes and developing a network of practitioners while enhancing mechanisms to decrease the default rate

Objective 7.5.4: Training

Offering vocational training and other training for small businesses

Stakeholder(s):

Small Businesses

Objective 7.5.5: Women

Targeting women and their participation in growth through business programs

Stakeholder(s):

Women

Objective 7.6: Land & Housing

The long-term goal is to ensure tenure security and equitable access to land for the attainment of broad-based social and economic development through optimum and ecologically balanced use of land and land- based resources.

Other Information:

Land is a basic factor of production as well as an important source of livelihood for most Malawians. There are three legally recognised types of land tenure in Malawi: customary, private and public. Customary land tenure is the most widespread category. However, other sub-tenures that are commonly practised by customary landholders (renting and borrowing) are not legally recognised. Registered private land (freehold and leasehold) accounts for less than 8.0 percent of the land area. Inadequate access to land has been identified as one of the critical factors contributing to poverty in the country. The land sector impacts on poverty in three main ways: inequitable access to productive resources and processes, unequal land distribution, and land tenure insecurity. However, discrimination in access to land based on social status, economic status and gender is a major constraint. For example, it is easier for rich people to access land than the poor, or where influential members of clans make unilateral decisions on land, very often without prior knowledge of other members of the groups. In addition, the following constraints or challenges have to be addressed; rapid population growth; poor land use practices, lack of effective representation of vulnerable groups in land administration and use matters, lack of awareness about the landpolicyanditsimplicationsonpeople’slivelihoods,poorformallandmarkets, and poor coordination among the existing network of field staff, NGOs, faith organizations, community based organizations etc on land matters... Expected Medium term Outcomes: The medium term expected outcome is the efficient use of land and land based resources and equitable access to land by all productive Malawians and other investors.

Objective 7.6.1: Markets & Transaction Costs

Promoting and facilitating opportunities for lowering land transaction costs and enhance the operation of effective land markets

Objective 7.6.2: Privatisation

Supporting the privatisation of some land services in an effort to encourage the development of private sector participation in land sector activities

Objective 7.6.3: Awareness & Participation

Promoting community participation and public awareness at all levels

Objective 7.6.4: Land Use Practices

Ensuring the adoption of environmentally sustainable land use practices, legislating land with provisions that enshrine tenure security not only to enhance tenure security, but also build confidence and encourage investment on land.

Objective 7.6.5: Antidiscrimination

Legislation of land that discourages discrimination on grounds of status, gender or vulnerability

Objective 7.6.6: Allocation

Implementing transparent and accountable land allocation systems

Objective 7.6.7: Tax

Increasing tax on land to realistic levels that will discourage underutilization and speculation.


Goal 8: SOCIAL PROTECTION AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

Objective(s):

8.1: Protecting the Vulnerable

8.1.1: Support

8.1.2: Planning & Knowledge

8.1.3: Farmers & Rural Communities

8.1.4: Savings Culture

8.1.5: Capital

8.2: Disaster Risk Management

8.2.1: Institutions

8.2.2: Risk Management

8.2.3: Mitigation

8.2.4: Sustainable Development

8.2.5: Coordination

8.2.6: Early Warning

8.2.7: Emergency Relief


Other Information:

Achievement of sustainable economic growth and development by itself may not automatically translate into improved quality of life for the most vulnerable Malawians. It is therefore necessary to design programmes that will protect them as they may not be able to take advantage of the benefits from economic growth. It is also necessary to protect those that are not chronically vulnerable, but fall into vulnerability due to economic shocks from time to time. The recent poverty and vulnerability study noted that 95.0 percent of households surveyed reported at least one economic shock in the past five years, with most households experiencing more than one type of shock. Coupled with the findings that there was a 30 percent fluctuation in poverty between 1998 and 2005, the need to have programs that keep the non-poor from falling into poverty is essential.12 Recent analysis suggests that small increases in expenditure growth can move people out of poverty, while economic shocks can quickly push people into poverty. Thus, social protection strategies should include measures to decrease the risk of shocks and strengthen resilience to shocks (such as those identified in food security and economic empowerment). Social protection programs will therefore be designed to protect the most vulnerable. There is also need for measures to protect the most vulnerable groups like the elderly, the chronically sick, orphans and other vulnerable children, malnourished children, lactating mothers and destitute families. Special groups of persons with disabilities14 are also included in this category. These groups of people are vulnerable to risk and typically lack appropriate risk management instruments, which constrains them from engaging in higher return activities to enable them move out of chronic poverty. Populations affected by disasters also qualify for social protection since disasters affect the livelihoods and social economic asserts of affected groups. Social protection and disaster management are therefore necessary as they restore peoples’ capacity to attain prosperity, create wealth and contribute to economic growth and development. Social protection is particularly important because it ensures that the vulnerable, who may be on the peripheral of economic activity and thereby not benefit from growth, are well protected. Three main areas of focus have been outlined. First is the sub theme on empowering farmers and rural communities by improving their integration into the economic market, increasing their productivity and contribution to economic growth. Secondly, the focus has been on the most vulnerable who may not be able to enjoy the benefits of growth and therefore there will be need to have plans in place for their protection. Lastly, focus has been on disaster management especially the scaling up of efforts to strengthen capacity for response. More importantly, there will be need to ensure that social protection programmes are formulated as a spring board for the poor and they should provide them with the capacity to come out of vulnerability and engage in productive work.

Objective 8.1: Protecting the Vulnerable

The long-term goal is to improve the life of the most vulnerable.

Other Information:

Vulnerability can be defined as the likelihood of being harmed by unforeseen events, or susceptibility to exogenous shocks. The most vulnerable broadly include individuals or households affected by disasters; households headed by orphaned children, the elderly and single-parents (especially female heads); persons with disabilities; under-five children, lactating and pregnant mothers; orphans, and the unemployed and underemployed, and the land-constrained in rural areas. It is noted, however, that this general categorisation does not mean that all people or households falling under these categories are the most vulnerable. The determining factor is their inability to meet their basic needs and on the basis of poverty characteristics. Currently, efforts to protect the most vulnerable have faced many problems. Most of the past market-based policies and interventions have been inefficient, fiscally unsustainable and mostly benefiting the non-poor than the poor. Consequently, all the market-based policies of social protection were abolished under the economic reforms. The administered programs are fragmented, uncoordinated and are poorly targeted. On the other hand, direct assistance and social welfare transfers are small in size and limited in coverage, largely due to financial constraints. The informal social protection, likewise, has become over-stretched and vulnerable to shocks due to increased poverty and the HIV and AIDS scourge. Several key challenges and constraints have made it difficult to improve the quality of life of the most vulnerable. These include clear lack of focus in implementing costeffective interventions especially the area of preventing and reducing the high prevalence of stunting and wasting in children less than two years of age. Inadequate planningandlackofintegrationregardingdataonthecountry’sdevelopmentand growth strategies on the one hand and the risks and obstacles to these strategies on the other hand, posed by structural weaknesses and fluctuating resource needs for the chronically poor. Poor targeting has also been a constraint mainly due to insufficient data regarding the characteristics, location, challenges and needs of the vulnerable. Other constraints include inadequate knowledge regarding processes, transfer mechanisms, power dynamics, and incentive structures of target communities; poor donor and stakeholder coordination in the design and delivery of programs, and this also touches on lack of coordination of social protection programs in general... Medium Term Expected Outcome The expected medium-term outcome is to increase assets of the poor to enable them to meaningfully engage in sustainable growth and contribute to poverty reduction. Key Strategies: In order to realize the goals and expected outcomes as outlined above, there is need to undertake the following strategies which complement efforts for economic empowerment and social development:

Objective 8.1.1: Support

Providing efficient and effective support to the most vulnerable with very limited factors of production.

Objective 8.1.2: Planning & Knowledge

Improving planning and integration of knowledge on the needs of the chronically poor.

Stakeholder(s):

Chronically Poor

Objective 8.1.3: Farmers & Rural Communities

Providing opportunities for the poor farmers and rural communities to graduate from poverty by facilitating their integration in mainstream agricultural productivity and enabling them to create wealth.

Stakeholder(s):

Poor Farmers

Rural Communities

Other Information:

Specifically, there shall be a provision of subsidized agricultural inputs to poor farm families; undertake public works programme (PWP).

Objective 8.1.4: Savings Culture

Promoting savings culture in PWPs

Objective 8.1.5: Capital

Providing capital for income generating activities through programmes such as MARDEF

Objective 8.2: Disaster Risk Management

The long-term goal is the reduction in the socio-economic impact of disasters as well as building a strong disaster management mechanism.

Other Information:

Improving Disaster Risk Management -- Malawi is frequently affected by natural disasters and calamities. Apart from disasters that hit traditional disaster-prone areas like the Shire Valley, acute food shortage is the worst form of humanitarian crisis in Malawi. Lakeshore areas are also prone to severe flooding during years of heavy rains. Hailstorms also destroy crops, livestock, and other infrastructure thereby reducing productivity and removing the sources of livelihoods. It is therefore important to harness wealth creation and poverty reduction by putting in place adequate disaster risk management measures that go beyond emergency response to preparedness, prevention and mitigation as well as rehabilitation and reconstruction. Nevertheless, disaster risk management efforts face a number of challenges and constraints among which are inadequate funding, poor response to disasters and lack of an effective early warning system... Medium Term Expected Outcome: The expected medium-term outcome is reduced impact of disasters by improved disaster risk management.

Objective 8.2.1: Institutions

Developing and strengthening institutions responsible for disaster risk management

Objective 8.2.2: Risk Management

Instituting necessary disaster risk management mechanisms

Objective 8.2.3: Mitigation

Implementing mitigation measures in disaster prone areas

Objective 8.2.4: Sustainable Development

Integrating disaster risk management into sustainable development planning at all levels

Objective 8.2.5: Coordination

Developing and strengthen coordination of institutions in disaster management and relief services

Objective 8.2.6: Early Warning

Establishing an early warning system for Malawi

Objective 8.2.7: Emergency Relief

Timely provision of emergency relief assistance to affected populations while measures shall be instituted aimed at improving mitigation and rehabilitation of areas affected by disasters.


Goal 9: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Objective(s):

9.1: Health

9.1.1: Worker Retention

9.1.2: Working Environment

9.1.3: Drug Supply

9.1.4: Facilities

9.1.5: Equipment

9.1.6: Financial Management, Monitoring & Supervision

9.1.7: Services

9.2: Population

9.2.1: Fertility

9.2.2: Morbidity & Mortality

9.2.3: Reproductive Health

9.2.4: HIV & AIDS

9.2.5: Awareness

9.2.6: Demographic & Socio-Economic Data

9.3: Education

9.3.1: School Buildings & Infrastructure

9.3.2: Teacher Training

9.3.3: Teaching-Learning Environment

9.3.4: Curricula

9.3.5: Student Selection

9.3.6: Girls & Special Needs Students

9.3.7: Managerial Skills

9.4: Gender

9.4.1: Policy Implementation

9.4.2: Affirmative Action

9.4.3: Advocacy

9.4.4: Cultural/Traditional Factors


Other Information:

A healthy and educated population is necessary to achieve sustainable economic growth. By building a healthy and educated population as well as achieving economic growth, Malawi seeks to achieve and sustain Millennium Development Goals. Major economic sectors of agriculture and industry require an educated, skilled and healthy workforce to take on new challenges and achieve the goals of the sectors. The Strategy recognizes the interrelated nature of issues of education, health, population, HIV and AIDS, nutrition and gender. These issues therefore have to be dealt with in a balanced manner, without neglecting any one of them if Malawi is to achieve economic growth and development as well as achieve the MDGs. It is in this context that this Strategy proposes to address these issues in a coherent manner under one theme of social development. However, considering the impact that HIV and AIDS and malnutrition have on the economy, Government has placed these as key priorities for the short to medium-term. As such these issues have been taken from this theme and are discussed under key priorities in Chapter 4. The overall goal of this theme is to develop human capital for full participation in the socio-economic and political development of the country.

Objective 9.1: Health

The long-term goal is to improve health of the population at all levels in a sustainable manner.

Other Information:

A healthy population is not only essential but also a pre-requisite for economic growth and development. There is a very close and strong correlation between health status and level of development. That is, countries with good health are highly developed, whereas those with poor health are underdeveloped. Malawi’shealthsituationbasedonthehealthindicatorssuchasmaternalmortality rate, child mortality rate, child and maternal malnutrition, life expectancy, access to health facilities is very unsatisfactory. While some achievements have been made after implementing a number of policies, some of the health indicators are the worst in the world. For instance, for every 100,000 live births, 1,120 mothers die due to limited access to quality reproductive and health services, infant mortality and child mortality are estimated at 76 and 133, respectively per 1000 live births due to limited access to health services and malnutrition. Though Government is making efforts to bring about improved health, it faces a number of challenges. These include inadequate health personnel, prevalence of diseases such as HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and acute respiratory infections, and migration of health personnel to other countries. Recent assessments have shown that there are more than 100,000 people per qualified physician. There is inadequate supply of essential drugs due to budgetary constraints, which is compounded by pilferage. In general, the health infrastructures or facilities are very poor. HIV and AIDS is a big challenge in attaining a healthy nation and this seriously affects development efforts in all sectors. The high prevalence of HIV and AIDS has seriously affected the health services delivery systems, subsequently the health status ofthecountry’spopulation.DetailedsituationanalysisonHIV andAIDSand measures currently in place to contain the scourge and challenges being faced are presented in the subsequent section on HIV and AIDS... Medium-term Expected Outcome: The expected medium term outcomes are, among others, improved provision of essential health care services; reduced infant mortality rate from 76 to 60 per 1,000 live births; reduced child mortality rate from 133 to 90 per 1,000 live births; and reduced maternal mortality rate by 50 percent from the current level of 984 deaths per 100,000 live births. Key Strategies: Successful achievement of the intended goals and expected outcomes will, to a greater extent, rely on what happens in other sectors like production of food in agriculture, disease treatment and prevention in the health sector, relevant curriculum in the education sector and reduction of gender inequality. The targeted programs under the health sector support program will be complemented by educational efforts to improve nutrition, food production, and general improvements in infrastructure in rural areas. The Government will work with partners in the donor community, NGOs, and at the village level to leverage the resources devoted to the improvement in health related goals. Improving health requires a multifaceted or integrated approach with a combination of preventive, educational and clinical measures. By bringing these together, the costs of interventions can be minimized and their effectiveness maximized. The MGDS seeks such integration. Main strategies include the following:

Objective 9.1.1: Worker Retention

Increasing the retention of qualified health workers through a targeted program for health care workers

Stakeholder(s):

Health Care Workers

Objective 9.1.2: Working Environment

Improving working environment for health personnel

Objective 9.1.3: Drug Supply

Increasing the availability and eliminating theft of drug supply

Objective 9.1.4: Facilities

Improving health facilities through targeted facilities infrastructure (roads, water, health buildings, water, communication and medical equipment)

Objective 9.1.5: Equipment

Improving equipment at health care facilities, especially maternity services

Objective 9.1.6: Financial Management, Monitoring & Supervision

Improving financial management, monitoring and supervision of health care facilities

Objective 9.1.7: Services

Providing comprehensive health services package that include treatment of diseases and infections, awareness programmes and education through Government and private hospitals.

Objective 9.2: Population

The long-term goal is to increase the number of people with good living standards.

Other Information:

The MGDS recognises that there is a strong linkage between issues of population and health as such efforts from these two fronts compliment each other. However, there are other elements of population that cannot be conclusively addressed by efforts in the health sector alone because of its broad nature. These include population data analysis and dissemination for development planning. This is particularly important for the determination of total demand for goods and services in the economy... Medium Term Expected Outcome: The medium term expected outcomes include: increased life expectancy from 37 years to 45 years; reduced population growth rate from 2.0 percent to 1.5 percent per annum; reduced total fertility rate from 6.0 to 4.9; and increased contraceptive prevalence rate from 33.0 percent to 40.6 percent.

Objective 9.2.1: Fertility

Lowering fertility in all reproductive age groups through advocacy programmes

Objective 9.2.2: Morbidity & Mortality

Expanding the range and improving access and quality of health services focused on common health problems to reduce morbidity and mortality

Objective 9.2.3: Reproductive Health

Providing accessible, affordable and comprehensive reproductive health services through informed choices in order to enable them to attain their reproductive health rights and goals

Objective 9.2.4: HIV & AIDS

Improving the quality of life of those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS

Objective 9.2.5: Awareness

Enhancing programmes which increase awareness of the population, reproductive health and HIV and AIDS challenges

Objective 9.2.6: Demographic & Socio-Economic Data

Improving methods of collection, analysis and dissemination of demographic and socio-economic data, disaggregated by age, sex, districts, and Traditional Authority through capacity building

Objective 9.3: Education

The education sector has identified three priority goals. These are to equip students, especially at the basic education level with basic knowledge and skills to enable them function as competent and productive citizens; at secondary level, to provide the academic basis for gainful employment in the informal, private and public sectors; and at tertiary level, to produce high quality professionals with relevant knowledge and skills in relevant fields.

Other Information:

Education is the key for attaining prosperity. It is a catalyst for socio-economic development, industrial growth and an instrument for empowering the poor, the weak and the voiceless. Education enhances group solidarity, national consciousness and tolerance of diversity. Government is implementing a number of reforms in order to improve the current situation especially to increase access and retention at all levels; improve the quality and the relevance of education being provided; improve equity, management and supervision; and the training of more teachers for both primary and secondary levels. This will be achieved through construction of additional classrooms, provision of relevant school supplies, training of more teachers and upgrading the existing under qualified ones. Curriculum reviews and reforms are in progress to improve the relevance of education so that the system can produce both white-collar job seekers and blue-collar job providers and the self-employed. Effective policies and systems are being established to enhance equity in education and effective management of the education sector. Improvement and relevance of the education system in Malawi continues to face a number of challenges due to poor policy decisions made over the past few years. These have negatively affected the quality and relevance of education being provided especially at primary and secondary levels. Such policies included the sudden declaration of the Free Primary Education Policy, the conversion of the former Distance Education Centres (DECs) to Community Day Secondary Schools (CDSS) and the use of untrained and under qualified teachers in the system due to inadequate number of professionally qualified teachers. The relevance of education has also been negatively affected by lack of timely reviews and reforms of the school curricula, consistent with the current national needs and aspirations, and also through the unwarranted addition of irrelevant subjects to the old curricula and the removal of relevant subjects such as technical, vocational and entrepreneurship education subjects. Other factors compromising education quality and relevance include: backward cultural altitudes of education for girls, inadequate infrastructure including for people with special needs, internal inefficiencies such as high absenteeism, high repetition and dropout rates, and also lack of school inspection or ineffective supervision and monitoring. These have rendered the system to be inefficient. The completion rates, pass rates and transitional rates from one class to the next and from one level to the next are very low... Medium-term Expected Outcomes: At pre-school level, the expected medium term outcome is to have an expanded infrastructure and increased access. At primary school level the expected medium term outcome is to substantially reduce absenteeism, repetition and dropout rates. At secondary and tertiary levels the expected medium term outcome is increased access and improved quality and relevant education for both sexes and students with special needs.

Objective 9.3.1: School Buildings & Infrastructure

Rehabilitating existing schools and building additional school infrastructure including teachers houses at all levels

Objective 9.3.2: Teacher Training

Training more teachers

Stakeholder(s):

Teachers

Objective 9.3.3: Teaching-Learning Environment

Improving the teaching-learning environment to reduce absenteeism, repetition and dropout rates for both sexes

Objective 9.3.4: Curricula

Reviewing and reforming school curricula to address national needs

Objective 9.3.5: Student Selection

Implementing affirmative policies relating to selection of pupils and students to secondary and tertiary levels

Objective 9.3.6: Girls & Special Needs Students

Providing a conducive environment for girls and students with special education needs to enhance equity

Stakeholder(s):

Girls

Students with Special Needs

Objective 9.3.7: Managerial Skills

Equiping managers with managerial skills through targeted training and induction.

Objective 9.4: Gender

The long-term goal is to mainstream gender in the national development process to enhance equal participation of both sexes for sustainable development.

Other Information:

Gender issues are an integral part of the overall national development agenda. Gender inequalities in accessing productive resources, development opportunities and decision making affect economic growth and development. The Gender Development Index for Malawi of 0.374 indicates that large disparities between men and women exist. Women who constitute about 51 percent of the population are marginalized in social and economic spheres such that they are unable to effectively contribute to social, economic and political development of Malawi. Education is a key factor for women empowerment. However women tend to have lower education levels than men leading to their lower participation in many areas of development. The main challenges are social/cultural factors, limited access to means of production, and limited participation in social and economic activities. The abuse of human rights or gender-based violence is tilted towards women and children and has accelerated other factors in their disfavour such as spread of HIV and AIDS.. In addition, the coordination and implementation of gender related policies is weak in Malawi... Medium-term Expected Outcome: The expected medium term outcome is reduced gender inequality. Key Strategies: Gender is not a stand-alone subject, as such achievement of Government’s goals and outcomes will very much depend on mainstreaming gender issues in all the other sectors. Main strategies include:

Objective 9.4.1: Policy Implementation

Strengthening the institutional capacity for effective co-ordination of gender policy implementation

Objective 9.4.2: Affirmative Action

Taking affirmative action to increase women and children decision makers in high levels of the public and private sectors

Objective 9.4.3: Advocacy

Promoting gender equality through advocacy

Objective 9.4.4: Cultural/Traditional Factors

Breaking the cultural/traditional factors which create and perpetuate gender inequalities.


Goal 10: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

Objective(s):

10.1: Air & Rail Transportation

10.1.1: Air Transport

10.1.1.1: Air Transport Industry

10.1.1.2: Aviation Infrastructure

10.1.2: Rail Transport

10.1.2.1: Information, Communication & Technologies

10.1.2.1.1: Universal Access

10.1.2.1.1.1: Investment Environnment

10.1.2.1.1.2: Regulatory Capacity

10.1.2.1.1.3: Regulations

10.1.2.1.2: Information Technology (IT)

10.1.2.1.2.1: Infrastructure

10.1.2.1.2.2: Legislation

10.1.2.1.2.3: System of Communication

10.1.2.1.2.4: Education & Training

10.1.2.1.2.5: Access

10.1.2.1.3: Broadcasting

10.1.2.1.3.1: Transmitting Stations

10.1.2.1.3.2: Distribution & Coverage

10.1.2.1.3.3: Local Capacity

10.1.2.1.3.4: Quality

10.1.2.1.3.5: Private Broadcasting Stations

10.1.2.1.3.6: Community Broadcasting

10.1.3: Research, Science & Technology Development

10.1.3.1: National Science and Technology Commission

10.1.3.2: Capacity

10.1.3.3: Public-Private Partnerships

10.1.3.4: Commercialization

10.1.3.5: Awards

10.1.3.6: Funding

10.1.3.7: Syllabi


Other Information:

Infrastructure is one of the prerequisite for economic growth. It is a key component for creating an enabling environment for private sector driven growth and provision of timely and quality social services. Provision of infrastructure in the areas of transport (road, rail, air and water), water supply and sanitation, electricity, telecommunications, and information technologies contribute to enhanced productivity of business establishments in the country. Infrastructure services are complementary in nature and must be provided as a package for maximum benefits of development endeavours set in this Strategy. In general, infrastructure in Malawi is grossly inadequate, characterized by low availability, unreliability and expensive. Overall, the infrastructure limitations in Malawi can be attributed to weak transport infrastructure (network and condition); high cost of transportation resulting in high cost of goods and services; unreliable and expensive utilities (water, electricity, and telecommunication); weak capacity of information technology in both private and public sectors. This is compounded by Malawi’slandlockedstatus,whichisamajordisadvantagetobusinessesasit increases the costs to importers and exporters relative to regional competitors. If the country is to register positive economic growth these limitations need to be addressed. Development of infrastructure will contribute to the achievement of a number of the expected outcomes of the MGDS. Specifically, a well developed infrastructure will contribute to reduced cost of doing business in Malawi as it will improve its attractiveness as an investment destination; increased access to markets, clinics, schools, especially in rural areas and reduced incidence of water-borne diseases and environmental impacts from poor water usage and poor sanitation. However, the provision of infrastructure is not an end in itself but provides an enabling environment for the economic and social activities. In line with the goals of the MGDS, infrastructure development would focus on provision of infrastructure services as a package, which will promote activities in the various sectors of the economy. This theme is made up of five sub themes namely transport; energy; water and sanitation; information, communication technology; and science, technology and research. Government has singled out transport infrastructure particularly roads and marine with respect to the Shire Zambezi Waterway as some of the key priority areas for the MGDS. Similarly, energy, water and sanitation have also been singled out as key priority areas. It is envisaged that the development of these selected infrastructure development initiatives will contribute to the realization of the immediate economic benefits for Malawi. Hence these issues have been taken from this theme and are discussed in Chapter 4 within the context of Government’s key priority areas for the short to medium-term. The remaining other focus areas are outlined below.

Objective 10.1: Air & Rail Transportation

Other Information:

This sub theme focuses on air and rail transportation since road and water transportation have been particularly singled out as some of the key priority areas where Government will concentrate its efforts in the medium-term. These have been discussed under chapter 4 of this document.

Objective 10.1.1: Air Transport

The long-term goal is to reduce the cost of air transportation while ensuring international competitiveness.

Other Information:

Air transport is the most efficient and effective means of transportation. However, Malawi faces a number of constraints such as airfreight costs which are higher than neighbouring countries, and landing rights restrictions and fees are prohibitive hence uncompetitive. Facilities at major airports are either below international standards or not available. While Malawi is striving to become a productive exporting economy there are no proper storage facilities at the international airport. In light of this problem, the focus in the medium term will be to ensure that the international airports conform to international standards through the provision of the relevant services and facilities... Expected Medium Term Outcome: In the medium term it is expected that Malawi will attain and maintain a competitive, self-sufficient and sustainable civil aviation environment that ensures safety in accordance with national and international standards and enables the provision of services in a reliable and efficient manner. Key Strategies: The objective of an affordable air transport is to attract tourists and export of agroprocessed products. This will call for availability of supportive accommodation facilities at the airports, availability of appropriate storage facilities and provision of appropriate information facilitates and packages to visitors. Strong public-private partnerships will be promoted to facilitate private investment. Main strategies include:

Objective 10.1.1.1: Air Transport Industry

Promoting and facilitating a competitive, sustainable and efficient air transport industry

Objective 10.1.1.2: Aviation Infrastructure

Providing a safe, efficient, reliable aviation infrastructure that complies with international standards.

Objective 10.1.2: Rail Transport

The long-term goal is to have an efficient, affordable and effective rail network that eases pressure from the road network and provides an alternative means of transport both to people and goods.

Other Information:

Expected Medium Term Outcome: In the medium term, it is expected that the rail sub-sector will be a well-managed, viable and sustainable system that promotes accessibility as well as affordable and reliable movement of goods and people. Key Strategies: The development of the rail network will have to be linked to target areas such as ports, industrial sites and national borders. Main strategies include:

Objective 10.1.2.1: Information, Communication & Technologies

Objective 10.1.2.1.1: Universal Access

The long-term goal is to ensure universal access to, connectivity and affordable information and communications technology.

Other Information:

Telecommunications The telecommunication sector plays an important role in economic growth and poverty reduction. Effective information dissemination and communication systems is critical for private sector development and service delivery. It benefits companies and the general public providing direct and fast access to information. MGDS recognises the importance of the telecommunication and information sub-sector in the creation of an enabling environment for private sector led growth as well as improving the quality of life. Currently telecommunications services are below regional standards. Statistics show that only about 4.0 percent of the total population is connected to ground telephone lines in the country. Mobile phone networks have of late improved the situation... Medium Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium-term it is expected that Malawi shall have increased access to telecommunications services. Key Strategies The implementation of an effective and efficient telecommunications strategy for Malawi will need to be in line with regional and international standards taking into account the issues of globalisation. Main strategies will include:

Objective 10.1.2.1.1.1: Investment Environnment

Creating a conducive environment to attract investment in telecommunications

Objective 10.1.2.1.1.2: Regulatory Capacity

Enhancing the capacity of the regulatory body Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority (MACRA) to act as a competent referee in order to level the playing field

Stakeholder(s):

Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority (MACRA)

Objective 10.1.2.1.1.3: Regulations

Developing monitoring and periodically reviewing regulations.

Objective 10.1.2.1.2: Information Technology (IT)

The long-term goal is to improve service delivery in both public and private sector institutions through the use of IT.

Other Information:

The use of modern techniques of information technology (IT) is important and necessary for the acceleration of economic growth and development. The dynamics and demands of the modern world call for active adoption and use of modern IT. Malawi has made strides in the investment and use of IT. Nevertheless, there are a number of constraints and challenges that need to be addressed to effectively improve service delivery. These include high costs of IT equipment, inadequate trained IT personnel, and poor IT support infrastructure... Medium Term Expected Outcomes: The medium term expected outcome is a well developed IT infrastructure and improved e-governance. In addition, there will be increased IT skills in both public and private sector institutions, and increased tele-density. Key Strategies: The implementation of an efficient IT strategy should take into account emerging needs of the industry at large in, particular, the high growth sectors such as tourism and manufacturing. Main strategies include:

Objective 10.1.2.1.2.1: Infrastructure

Developing a reliable, fast, adaptive and robust national IT infrastructure

Objective 10.1.2.1.2.2: Legislation

Enacting an appropriate legislation that promotes and facilitates the country’s participation in the information age

Objective 10.1.2.1.2.3: System of Communication

Facilitating the establishment of an efficient intra and inter-departmental, inter-sectoral, national and sub-national system of communication, for the necessary feedback in policy formulation, programme implementation, monitoring and review

Objective 10.1.2.1.2.4: Education & Training

Intensifying IT education and training in all sectors

Objective 10.1.2.1.2.5: Access

Improving IT access by all communities.

Objective 10.1.2.1.3: Broadcasting

The long-term goal is to improve the dissemination of accurate, unbiased and timely information to the general public for informed decision-making.

Other Information:

Information dissemination through radio and television (TV) continues to be the main form of communication in Malawi. Development of these modes of communication will remain vital in the medium-term to ensure that the population both in urban and rural areas is actively involved in the development process. Currently, radio communication is on the increase due to active participation of private radio stations. Television communication is still in its infancy but rapidly growing owing to its high message retention rate estimated at 93.0 percent. TV communication has proved to be the best mode of disseminating information on various topical issues such as education, democracy, good governance, human rights, and health. As such it is an important tool that will contribute significantly to economic growth and development for Malawi... Medium-term expected outcomes: In the medium-term it is expected that the country shall have a developed broadcasting infrastructure using modern telecommunication technologies.

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.1: Transmitting Stations

Developing and rehabilitating broadcasting transmitting stations

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.2: Distribution & Coverage

Improving broadcasting distribution and coverage

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.3: Local Capacity

Developing local capacity to generate reliable and accurate news and programmes

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.4: Quality

Improving quality and unbiasedness of local-content programme production

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.5: Private Broadcasting Stations

Promoting the participation of private broadcasting stations

Stakeholder(s):

Private Broadcasting Stations

Objective 10.1.2.1.3.6: Community Broadcasting

Promoting community broadcasting services.

Objective 10.1.3: Research, Science & Technology Development

The long-term goal is to enhance development through the application of science and technology.

Other Information:

Government recognizes the importance of research, science and technology in national socio-economic development. In this context, it has established national institutional structures that support the development of science and technology such as the National Research Council (NRC), Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC) and a fully-fledged Department responsible for science and technology. Technology is generated through continuous research and development hence it calls for investment in research, technology development and transfer. However, despite these efforts, Malawi is extremely weak not only in scientific and technological development but also in its utilization. This weakness affects many aspects of the socio-economic development. Integration of science and technology in the national development planning process continues to face a number of constraints. Some of these key constraints are; poor coordination of research, science and technology generation, weak institutional capacity, and inadequate funding to the relevant institutions... Expected medium term outcomes: In the medium term, it is expected that the following outcomes will be attained: * Well coordinated science and technology generation and dissemination; * Effective and efficient operation of the science and technology institutions; * Increased uptake on productivity and enhancement of technologies; and * Prioritised and focused research and development.

Objective 10.1.3.1: National Science and Technology Commission

Establishing a National Science and Technology Commission as the apex body to coordinate all activities relating to research, science and technology

Stakeholder(s):

National Science and Technology Commission

Objective 10.1.3.2: Capacity

Strengthening the capacity of research, science and technology institutions

Stakeholder(s):

Research Institutions in Malawi

Science Institutions in Malawi

Technology Institutions in Malawi

Objective 10.1.3.3: Public-Private Partnerships

Generating and disseminating appropriate technology through public-private partnerships

Objective 10.1.3.4: Commercialization

Developing and commercialising science and technology in areas identified to contribute significantly to socio-economic development

Objective 10.1.3.5: Awards

Promoting the development and utilization of indigenous technology through the re-introduction of the “Malawi Award for Scientific and Technological Achievement (MASTA) and the Most Innovative Technology Stand (MITS)” at the Malawi International Trade Fair

Objective 10.1.3.6: Funding

Establishing research funding mechanisms to promote research by individuals and institutions, including formulation of legislation for private sector investment in local research, science and technology development

Objective 10.1.3.7: Syllabi

Designing syllabi that achieve a balance of science and technology, arts and humanities in basic, secondary, higher and technical education levels.


Goal 11: IMPROVED GOVERNANCE

Objective(s):

11.1: Macroeconomic Growth

11.1.1: Public Finance Management

11.1.2: Budget Monitoring & Evaluation

11.1.3: Donor Financing

11.1.4: Private Sector Participation

11.1.5: Donor-Aid Coordination

11.2: Public Policy Formulation, Fiscal Management, Public Sector Management & Corruption

11.2.1: Public Policy Formulation

11.2.1.1: Community Information Centres

11.2.1.2: Infrastructure

11.2.1.3: Access to Information Legislation

11.2.1.4: Policy Formulation & Evaluation

11.2.1.5: Parliament

11.2.2: Fiscal Management

11.2.2.1: Priorities

11.2.2.2: Budgetary Expenditures

11.2.2.3: Legal Adherence

11.2.2.4: Financial & Management Information System

11.2.2.5: Budget/Accounting Linkage

11.2.3: Corruption

11.2.3.1: Training

11.2.3.2: Accountability

11.2.3.3: Political Interference

11.2.3.4: Procurement

11.2.3.5: Devolution

11.2.4: Public Sector Management

11.2.4.1: Training

11.2.4.2: Appointments & Promotions

11.2.4.3: Wage Policy Reform

11.2.4.4: Civil Service

11.2.4.5: Non-Salary Incentives

11.3: Decentralization

11.3.1: Devolution

11.3.2: Roles

11.3.3: M&E System

11.3.4: Training

11.4: Justice & Rule of Law

11.4.1: Local Capacities

11.4.2: Court Centres

11.4.3: Civil Disputes

11.4.4: Legal Alignment

11.4.5: Informal Legal System

11.5: Security

11.5.1: Police

11.5.2: Prosecution & Punishment

11.5.3: Crime Detection, Investigation & Prevention

11.5.4: Risk Management

11.5.5: Community Integration & Participation

11.6: Corporate Governance

11.6.1: Best Practices

11.6.2: Institute of Directors

11.6.3: Private Sector

11.7: Human Rights

11.7.1: Awareness

11.7.2: Prosecution

11.7.3: Legislation & Administrative Framework

11.7.4: Workplace Regulations

11.7.5: Monitoring & Evaluation

11.7.6: School Curricula

11.8: Implementation


Other Information:

The success of the strategies suggested in the first four themes depends much to the prevalence of good governance. The main tenets of good governance are issues to deal with good public sector management, absence of corruption and fraud, decentralization, justice and rule of law, security, good corporate governance, and respect of human rights. In addition, the need for political will and change of mindset within a democratic political environment is also envisaged to contribute positively towards the attainment of economic prosperity and poverty reduction. Malawi will, therefore, endeavour to address concerns in these areas as they underpin the achievement of all economic growth and social development objectives in the medium term. The need to address concerns in all these sub themes cannot be over emphasised, as it is evident that the achievement of the long-term national goals is dependent on good governance from all angles within the economy. As such, it is imperative that good governance creates a conducive environment for the implementation of both economic and social activities. However, the deliverance of good governance calls for collaborative efforts from all stakeholders because of the cross cutting nature of the issues at hand. Again, political will and change of mindset within a democratic political environment is also critical if anything is to be achieved. The country will, nevertheless, endeavour to address concerns in these areas through the various strategies put forward and thereby contribute towards the achievement of all economic growth and social development goals.

Objective 11.1: Macroeconomic Growth

The long-term goal is the attainment of sustainable macroeconomic growth and development.

Other Information:

Macroeconomic growth in a stable political and economic environment is a prerequisite for sustainable economic growth and wealth creation. In the past few years, the country experienced unstable macroeconomic environment mainly due to fiscal indiscipline. The macroeconomic fundamentals such as inflation, interest rates and exchange rates have not been suitable for economic growth and development. Interest rates still remain high to generate real investment. Inflation rates are high and fluctuating, while the Malawi Kwacha exchange rate against major currencies has been unstable and depreciating. Major challenges include the reduction of the unsustainable Government debt, privatisation of parastatals that continue to draw down on public resources, maintaining a sustainable fiscal deficit, unpredictable donor financing and external shocks such as increasing petroleum prices... Medium Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium term, it is expected that Malawi shall achieve a favourable macroeconomic environment with low inflation (below 5.0 percent), lower interest rates, non-volatile exchange rates, reduced Government borrowing and sustainable debts.

Objective 11.1.1: Public Finance Management

Improving public finance management by adhering to the budget and good financial management systems as prescribed in the relevant Acts

Objective 11.1.2: Budget Monitoring & Evaluation

Improving Government budget monitoring and evaluation

Objective 11.1.3: Donor Financing

Improving the predictability of donor financing and holding donors accountable to their commitments

Stakeholder(s):

Donors

Objective 11.1.4: Private Sector Participation

Improving the environment for private sector participation by reducing the crowding-out effects for private sector borrowing and the introduction of favourable tax reforms

Stakeholder(s):

Private Sector

Objective 11.1.5: Donor-Aid Coordination

Improving donor-aid coordination.

Stakeholder(s):

Donors

Objective 11.2: Public Policy Formulation, Fiscal Management, Public Sector Management & Corruption

Other Information:

In Malawi, the public sector has been characterized by poor management that has generated inefficiencies in the delivery of public goods and services. Government and its development partners are already addressing these challenges in the sector such as wage policy reform, civil service structure reform, capacity constraints and corruption. Despite these efforts, poor civil service incentive structures, inadequate financial and material resources, poor implementation structures, inadequate capacity, political interference, transparency and accountability, fraud and corruption still remain major obstacles in the medium term. In light of this, the focus in the medium term will be on strengthening public policy formulation, fiscal management and eliminating corruption in addition to the on going reforms in the public sector. This will be premised on strong political will and management.

Objective 11.2.1: Public Policy Formulation

The long-term goal is to promote free flow of information to allow the public to participate effectively in decision-making processes.

Other Information:

Effective public policy formulation is important for proper decision-making. This requires involvement of all key stakeholders. It is also important that the general public has access to information to enhance effective participation in policy formulation... Medium-Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium term it is expected that the public will be well informed to participate in national development activities.

Objective 11.2.1.1: Community Information Centres

Improving public access to timely and accurate information by establishing community information centres

Objective 11.2.1.2: Infrastructure

Strengthening information collection, processing, storage, retrieval and publication infrastructure.

Other Information:

This will require the procurement of equipment for public news agencies, establish record management systems in the public sector, and introduce wire news subscription to public institutions

Objective 11.2.1.3: Access to Information Legislation

Enacting access to information legislation

Objective 11.2.1.4: Policy Formulation & Evaluation

Engaging private sector and other key stakeholders in policy formulation and evaluation

Stakeholder(s):

Private Sector

Objective 11.2.1.5: Parliament

Engaging Parliament more in constructive discussion on the national development process as outlined in the Malawi constitution.

Stakeholder(s):

Malawi Parliament

Objective 11.2.2: Fiscal Management

The long-term goal is to adhere to sound fiscal management practices by spending within the available financial resources.

Other Information:

Good fiscal management is important to ensure that public resources are allocated and spent on priority areas. This will be fundamental to achieve the targets and aspirations outlined in the MGDS. The central tool in fiscal management is the budgeting process, which since 1995 has been based on medium term expenditure framework (MTEF). The MTEF entails an output-focused approach based on costing of priority activities and projections of available resources. However, implementation of the MTEF has not been satisfactory. There have been huge variations in terms of planned (approved) expenditures and actual expenditures. Unbudgeted expenditures have exerted unnecessary pressures on the budget undermining the set priorities. Sector policies have remained unaffordable and resources have ended up being spread too thinly across so many activities thereby making little or no impact. This only shows lack of appreciation of resource constraints both at political and technical levels. It is imperative that the situation be corrected to achieve the long-term goal... Medium-Term Expected Outcome: In the medium term, it is expected that budget implementation will be improved.

Objective 11.2.2.1: Priorities

Ensuring that resources are spent on priority areas

Objective 11.2.2.2: Budgetary Expenditures

Eliminating extra budgetary expenditures

Objective 11.2.2.3: Legal Adherence

Adhering to the Public Finance Management Act, Public Audit Act and Public Procurement Act

Objective 11.2.2.4: Financial & Management Information System

Improving Integrated Financial and Management Information System (IFMIS)

Objective 11.2.2.5: Budget/Accounting Linkage

Linking the output-based budget to the Government accounting system.

Objective 11.2.3: Corruption

The long-term goal is to make Malawi a corruption-free country.

Other Information:

Corruption retards economic growth and development by diverting resources from socio-economic development activities into coffers of a few. It discourages legitimate business investment, and reduces the public resources available for the delivery of public goods and services especially to the poor. Despite efforts to curb corruption, cases of corruption are still on the rise. The Anti-CorruptionBureau’seffectivenessis hampered by inadequate human and financial capacity in addition to the need for reviewing other related laws. One of the main challenges in the medium term is, therefore, to ensure that corruption and fraud prevention is improved while offenders face the law... Medium-Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium term, it is expected that corruption and fraud will be reduced. This will be achieved through improved transparency and accountability of goods and service delivery and zero tolerance to corrupt practices

Objective 11.2.3.1: Training

Training specialised personnel in the field of corruption and fraud to improve human capacity in such institutions of the Anti Corruption Bureau (ACB), Auditor General and Accountant General

Stakeholder(s):

Anti Corruption Bureau (ACB) of Malawi

Auditor General of Malawi

Accountant General of Malawi

Objective 11.2.3.2: Accountability

Promoting the accountability of the ACB and the Auditor General to Parliament

Stakeholder(s):

Anti Corruption Bureau (ACB) of Malawi

Parliament of Malawi

Objective 11.2.3.3: Political Interference

Reducing political interference in the public sector by redefining and separating roles between Cabinet Ministers and Principal Secretaries

Stakeholder(s):

Malawi Cabinet Ministers

Malawi Principal Secretaries

Objective 11.2.3.4: Procurement

Promoting transparency and accountability in the procurement and delivery of goods and services by enforcing the relevant rules and regulations

Objective 11.2.3.5: Devolution

Deepening the process of devolution of authority and resources to local Governments in order to improve transparency and accountability.

Stakeholder(s):

Local Governments in Malawi

Objective 11.2.4: Public Sector Management

The long-term goal is that Malawi should have a highly motivated, results oriented and productive civil service.

Other Information:

Public sector management is important to ensure effective delivery of public goods and services. However, the public sector in Malawi is characterised by low motivation due to inadequate remuneration, lack of proper incentives, inadequate material resources, and political interference among others... Medium-Term Expected Outcome: In the medium-term, it is expected that Malawi will have a highly motivated civil service leading to improved performance and services delivery.

Objective 11.2.4.1: Training

Building capacity through appropriate training in the public sector for effective service delivery

Objective 11.2.4.2: Appointments & Promotions

Appointing and promoting staff based on merit and performance

Objective 11.2.4.3: Wage Policy Reform

Continuing with wage policy reforms in order to raise incentives in the civil service

Objective 11.2.4.4: Civil Service

Rationalising the civil service to ensure cost effectiveness of the delivery of public goods and services

Objective 11.2.4.5: Non-Salary Incentives

Implementing non-salary incentives performance management systems.

Objective 11.3: Decentralization

The long-term goal is to enhance decision-making and participation of local communities in development planning and implementation.

Other Information:

Malawi recognizes local Governments as key to national development and good governance. The objective is to devolve central Government powers, functions and resources to Malawians through their local authorities known as assemblies. This approach is enshrined in the Decentralisation Policy (1998) and is backed by the Local Government Act (1998). The implementation of the programme since 2001 has through democracy for effective popular participation and decision making in the development process should continue... Medium-Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium term, it is expected that local assemblies will have full control of the process of development planning. It is also expected that there will be improvement in community participation, efficient accountability, good governance systems, vibrant monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems, clear and strengthened linkages of various policy reforms, and reduced conflicts of roles among various stakeholders at the district level. met a number of constraints, which have slowed down the progress. These include weak, poor and ineffective linkages between decentralization policy and other public policy reforms, persistent power struggle and conflicts of roles between elected members such as Members of Parliament, Councillors and Traditional Authorities; weak institutional capacity, high turn over of key staff like accountants, economists and other specialists, ineffective participation of the local communities due to lack of information, knowledge and skills, and inadequate financial resources among others. However, with the advent of popular democracy and the fact that over 80.0 percent of the population resides in rural areas, it is still necessary that empowerment of people

Objective 11.3.1: Devolution

Implementing full and complete sector devolution

Objective 11.3.2: Roles

Redefining roles of various local Government players to reduce operational conflicts and promote effective contribution to the development process

Objective 11.3.3: M&E System

Establishing a vibrant M&E system which will ensure transparency and accountability

Objective 11.3.4: Training

Building capacity through training of various stakeholders to enhance their participation in development planning.

Objective 11.4: Justice & Rule of Law

The long-term goal is to increase access to justice and entrenched rule of law.

Other Information:

Developing a Strong Justice System and Rule of Law -- The creation of a strong legal system that safeguards the interest of the nation and promotes the rule of law is also a fundamental factor for achieving sustainable economic growth and development. This, among others, is envisaged to create an enabling legal and regulatory framework that provides incentives for economic activities. The dynamics of the modern world that brought about multi-party democracy, globalisation, regional integration, and human rights calls for a coordinated approach to delivering justice and respect for the rule of law. It is with this background that all stakeholder institutions in the sector have a role to play if Malawi is to attain its medium term goals. There are a number of constraints that need to be addressed in order to develop and enforce the rule of law in Malawi. These include shortage of legal experts to effectively and timely handle legal cases, lack of local capacity to train legal personnel, and high costs of legal services. In addition, high crime rates, lack of adequate access to justice, commitment to human rights and lack of respect of the rule of law are also critical issues that need to be tackled. However, there are also other cross-cutting constraints that affect delivery of justice and respect for rule of the law like institutional capacity, inadequate systems and procedures, HIV and AIDS pandemic, slow adoption of ICT and poor infrastructure... Medium-Term Expected Outcomes: In the medium-term, it is expected that Malawi shall have a more responsive and effective judicial authority with sustained administration of justice, increased public confidence in the judicial system and improved ability of the private sector to obtain equitable and fair settlement of disputes in reasonable time and cost.

Objective 11.4.1: Local Capacities

Improving the local institutional capacities for training legal personnel

Objective 11.4.2: Court Centres

Providing more court centres; with the introduction of traditional courts with appropriate jurisdiction in order to reduce time and cost for handling legal cases

Objective 11.4.3: Civil Disputes

Improving civil dispute settlement mechanism

Objective 11.4.4: Legal Alignment

Aligning various relevant laws with the Malawi Constitution and international laws

Objective 11.4.5: Informal Legal System

Developing an informal legal system that is accessible, efficient, and equitable.

Objective 11.5: Security

The long-term goal is to make Malawi a safe, secure and crime free nation.

Other Information:

Security is important in the country to safeguard human resources, infrastructure, goods and services. This is critical for creating an enabling environment for economic and social activities. Major challenges include inadequate police officers, equipment, and infrastructure. These need to be addressed in the medium term if crime prevention, detection, and investigation are to contribute effectively towards a safe and secure Malawi... Medium Term Expected Outcomes: The expected outcomes in the medium term include: reduced crime levels; improved methods of promoting public order; and improved partnership and participation of members of the public on all issues of safety and security.

Objective 11.5.1: Police

Improving the responsiveness of police to communities security needs by reducing the police population ratio through recruitment and training of more officers

Stakeholder(s):

Malawi Police

Objective 11.5.2: Prosecution & Punishment

Promoting effective prosecution and punishment

Objective 11.5.3: Crime Detection, Investigation & Prevention

Enhancing effective crime detection, investigation and prevention through the provision of adequate technical and financial support to the police

Objective 11.5.4: Risk Management

Strengthening partnership for risk management between private sector and the police for protection of business property

Stakeholder(s):

Private Sector in Malawi

Malawi Police

Business Property Owners in Malawi

Objective 11.5.5: Community Integration & Participation

Enhancing community integration and participation in crime prevention, and detection through civic education.

Objective 11.6: Corporate Governance

The long-term goal is to institute good corporate governance practices in the private sector.

Stakeholder(s):

Corporations in Malawi

Other Information:

Good corporate governance is an important factor within the creation of an enabling environment for rapid and sustainable private sector development. However, it is a relatively new phenomenon within the private sector context and as such, it requires support in order to ensure greater transparency and accountability of companies in the country. Strengthening good corporate governance will therefore be one of the key tools of addressing the problem of fraud and corruption within the private sector. In the past, the major problem has been lack of the code of good practices that would govern the operations of the private sector. This problem is now being addressed with the development of the code of best practices by the private sector. In addition, the Institute of Directors has been established so that it plays a leading role in championing corporate governance issues in the country. Efforts in the medium term will therefore emphasize on the implementation of the best practices with particular emphasis on transparency and accountability. This is expected to contribute towards reduction of fraud and corruption in the private sector... Medium term expected outcomes: In the medium-term, it is expected that there will be reduced corruption and fraud, and improved investor perceptions of Malawi as an attractive investment destination. This is expected to translate into increased levels of domestic and foreign direct investment.

Objective 11.6.1: Best Practices

Promoting the adoption of good corporate governance code of best practices

Objective 11.6.2: Institute of Directors

Popularising the role of the Institute of Directors to facilitate the adoption of good corporate governance code of best practices

Stakeholder(s):

Institute of Directors

Objective 11.6.3: Private Sector

Mobilizing the support of the private sector to facilitate the sustainable operations of the new institution.

Stakeholder(s):

Private Sector in Malawi

Objective 11.7: Human Rights

The long-term goal is to increase awareness and upholding of human rights among all Malawians, particularly the most vulnerable through the promotion and protection of human rights.

Other Information:

The MGDS recognises the importance of human rights within the context of good governance and democracy. A rights based approach to development is the basis of equality and equity, both in the distribution of development gains and in the level of participation in the development process. Human rights are an integral part of the overall national development agenda. However, awareness of human rights is a concern among many people in Malawi. The key areas of concern in human rights awareness are the rights of vulnerable groups and how to exercise them, and roles of governance institutions in promotion and protection of human rights. Empowering the most vulnerable groups that form the larger part of the population can effectively contribute to social, economic and political development of the country. In this regard the MGDS will therefore also focus on public awareness of human rights and acknowledgement of human rights responsibilities... Medium-term Expected Outcomes: In the medium-term, the expected outcome is enhanced awareness and practice of human rights and responsibilities among all Malawians, particularly the most vulnerable groups.

Objective 11.7.1: Awareness

Raising awareness among the most vulnerable groups about their rights and how to exercise them, and the roles of the human rights bodies in promoting and protecting people’s rights

Stakeholder(s):

Vulnerable Groups in Malawi

Human Rights Bodies

Objective 11.7.2: Prosecution

Effective prosecution of human rights violation

Objective 11.7.3: Legislation & Administrative Framework

Developing an appropriate legislation and administrative framework for the protection and promotion of human rights

Objective 11.7.4: Workplace Regulations

Instituting human rights regulations in workplaces

Objective 11.7.5: Monitoring & Evaluation

Instituting effective monitoring and evaluation of human rights issues

Objective 11.7.6: School Curricula

Integrating human rights in school curricula.

Objective 11.8: Implementation

Stakeholder(s):

Parliament of Malawi

Government of Malawi

Malawi Law Commission

Anti Corruption Bureau

Private Sector in Malawi

Malawi Ombudsman

Civil Society in Malawi

The Malawi Public

Malawi Donors

Other Information:

The successful implementation of various strategies suggested under this theme relies mainly on political will among other factors. Government and Parliament will have to demonstrate that policies and legislations being implemented take into account the nation’s priorities. Inaddition, support from civil societies, donors and the public will be key for the achievement of the long-term goals and medium-term expected outcomes through the strategies suggested in this document. The maintenance of macroeconomic growth will be achieved through pursuance of prudent macroeconomic policies, tight fiscal and monetary policies and adherence to targets as outlined in the MGDS. Implementation of the MGDS will be done in collaboration with donors and private sector to contribute effectively to the overall goal of maintaining a conducive macroeconomic environment. Elimination of corruption and fraud practices within the Government and Private sector circles will largely depend on the effectiveness of the Anti Corruption Bureau. The relevant Acts will have to be revised to ensure the autonomous nature of the institution and reduce political interference. The implementation of public sector reforms will continue in the medium term. Also important is the regular review of the wage policy reform whose implementation will continue. The private sector will play a leading role in entrenching of good corporate governance in Malawi. However, the civil society and public sector are the other stakeholders that will help facilitate successful outcomes of good corporate governance in the medium term. The implementation of the strategies under justice, rule of law and security will require a collaborated approach among the various stakeholders in the sector. These stakeholders include Government, Law Commission, Ombudsman, Anti Corruption Bureau, Civil Society, the public and donors. This is especially important because of the cross cutting nature of the issues that need to be addressed.

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